Geography and Planning


Faculty List

Professors Emeriti 
L.S. Bourne, MA, PhD, FRSC, DES Hons 
J.N.H. Britton, MA, PhD 
R.B. Bryan, BA, PhD 
I. Burton, PhD, FRSC 
A.J. Dakin, PhD, ARIBA, FRTPI 
J.H. Galloway, MA, PhD (V) 
E.C. Relph, MPhil, PhD 
S.T. Roweis, MSc (Pl), PhD (I) 
J.W. Simmons, MA, PhD 
T. Smith, MSc, PhD 
A. Waterhouse, MSc (Pl), PhD 

Associate Professor Emeritus 
A. M. Davis, PhD 

Associate Professor and Chair of the Department
R.J. DiFrancesco, MA, PhD

Professor and Graduate Chair 
R. Buliung, MA, PhD

Associate Professor and Undergraduate Chair
M. Farish, BA, PhD 

Professors 
H. Bathelt, MESc, MA, PhD
J.M. Chen, BSc, PhD, FRSC
D. Cowen, MScPl, PhD 
A.G. Daniere, MPP, PhD 
J.R. Desloges, MSc, PhD 
M.S. Gertler, MCP, PhD, FRSC 
E. Gilbert, MA, PhD
J. Hackworth, MA, MEP, PhD 
L.D.D. Harvey, MSc, PhD 
D. Leslie, MA, PhD 
R. Lewis, MA, PhD
B. Mullings, MSc, PhD
W.S. Prudham, MA, PhD 
K.N. Rankin, MRP, PhD 
S. Ruddick, MA, PhD 
M. Siemiatycki, MSc, PhD
R. Silvey, MA, PhD
S. Wakefield, MA, PhD 

Professor, Teaching Stream 
D. Boyes, MSc, PhD 

Associate Professors 
C. Abizaid, MA, PhD
A. Boland, MAIS, PhD 
K. Goonewardena, MPl, PhD 
P. Hess, MEP, PhD 
J. Liu, PhD 
V. Maclaren, MPl, MS, PhD
N. Singh, MFM, PhD 
M. Widener, MSc, PhD 
J. Zhang, MS, PhD 

Assistant Professors 
M. Daigle, MA, PhD
H. Dorries, MScPl, PhD
T. Redden, MS, PhD
J. Spicer, MCP, PhD
L. Stephens, MScPl, PhD (CLTA)
N. Subramanyam, MRP, PhD

Assistant Professors, Teaching Stream 
K. Malik, MSc, PhD (CLTA)
S. Peirce, MSc, PhD 

Introduction

Geography is the study of the environments created on the earth’s surface by nature and people. The physical and biological elements of these environments, as well as their economic and social structure, historical development, spatial organization, interrelationships, management and planning form the subject matter of Geography. Geography, therefore, relates closely to other fields in natural science, social science and the humanities, and geographers take courses in these related fields along with their geography courses. Students specializing in other subjects often select one or more geography courses to deepen their understanding of the cities, culture, economies and environments of those parts of the world in which they are interested.

Employment opportunities for geographers exist in many branches of international organizations, government, industry, and education. Geographers work at all levels of government service, especially in agencies responsible for environmental management; land and resource analysis; development of historic districts and sites; urban transportation planning; urban and regional development planning; trade promotion; community social services; geographic systems design and data analysis; transport network design and the processing of archival, survey, and cartographic information. In business, geographers work in marketing, locational analysis, resource development, and in consulting firms engaged in project evaluation, land use planning and natural heritage conservation. They often also find work in the non-profit sector as policy analysts, cartographers and geographic information science specialists, community organizers, and educators.

The Department offers Specialist, Major and Minor Programs in different branches of Geography, and contributes courses to various college, departmental and school programs including American Studies; Anthropology; Archaeology; Canadian Studies; Caribbean Studies; Critical Studies in Equity and Solidarity, Diaspora and Transnational Studies; East Asian Studies; Earth Sciences;  Environmental Science and Environmental Studies; Indigenous Studies;  Peace and Conflict Studies; Urban Studies; and Women and Gender Studies. 

Associate Chair, Undergraduate:
Professor M. Farish, Sidney Smith Hall, Room 5040, matt.farish@utoronto.ca 

Undergraduate Administrator and Advisor:
K. Giesbrecht, Sidney Smith Hall, Room 5044, undergraduate.geography@utoronto.ca

General Enquiries: 416-978-3375, mainoffice@geog.utoronto.ca

Website: https://www.geography.utoronto.ca/undergraduate

 

Regarding Geography and Planning Programs

Admission to major and specialist programs will be determined by a student's mark in 0.5-1.0 GGR credits at the 100 and/or 200-level. See program descriptions for details on the entry requirements. These are limited enrolment programs that can only accommodate a limited number of students. Achieving the marks required does not necessarily guarantee admission to the program in any given year.

Double majors in Geography may only overlap 1.0 credit. Students combining any of our Minor programs with a Specialist/Major program would normally be allowed to overlap only 1.5 credits towards both programs. Double minors can overlap 1.0 credit. Students combining the Focus in Planning and the Focus in Urban Geography can overlap 1.5 credits. Students that choose to specialize or major in one of the three Geography programs cannot minor in the same program but may do so in another Geography program. 

Generally, students may only take 1.0 credit of an Independent Research Project toward their program requirements.

Geography and Planning Programs

Human Geography Specialist (Arts Program) - ASSPE1667

The Human Geography programs provide the opportunity to learn about the relations between landscapes, places, people and nature, and the spatial organization of human activities. While students are encouraged to explore the breadth of the discipline, we also identify courses by theme for students who wish to develop expertise in one or two subfields (e.g., urban geography, cultural and historical geography). The Human Geography programs appeal to students who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the cultural, economic, political and social forces that shape how people use and experience the environments they live in. These programs offer training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Note: Students combining any of our Specialist programs with a Minor Geography program will normally be allowed to overlap only 1.5 credits towards both programs.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is a limited enrolment program. Students must have completed 4.0 credits and meet the requirements listed below to enrol.

Variable Minimum Grade
A minimum grade is needed for entry, and this minimum changes each year depending on available spaces and the number of applicants. The following courses must be completed:

  • 0.5 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 75%, or
  • 1.0 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 70%

To ensure that students admitted to the program will be successful, applicants with a final grade or grade average lower than the minimum grades stated above will not be considered for admission. Please note that obtaining this minimum final grade does not guarantee admission to the program. Jointly-offered GGR courses will also be considered (e.g. JEG, JGI, JGE).

Completion Requirements:

First Year Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR107H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Physical and Environmental Geography Course: Any course (0.5 credit) not used to satisfy first year course requirement from JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR223H1

Methods Courses: All (1.5 credits) of GGR270H1, GGR271H1, GGR272H1

Regional Geography Course: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1

Fourth Year Courses: Any 2 (1.0 credit) 400-level GGR courses, at least one of which must be from Group E. Up to one 0.5 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Applications: Any 11 courses (5.5 credits) from Group E; Up to 1.5 credits can be from Group F. Up to 1.0 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Note: At least 4.0 credits must be 300/400-level courses. Of these, at least 1.0 credit must be at the 400-level (includes Fourth Year Course requirement).

Total credits: 10.0

Group E (Human Geography Courses):
GGR217H1, GGR221H1, GGR223H1, GGR225H1, GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR251H1, GGR252H1, GGR254H1, GGR259H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR299Y1, GGR320H1, GGR323H1, GGR324H1, GGR326H1, GGR327H1, GGR328H1, GGR329H1, GGR332H1, GGR334H1, GGR336H1, GGR338H1, GGR339H1, GGR340H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1, GGR349H1, GGR354H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR360H1, GGR363H1, GGR372H1, GGR373H1, GGR374H1, GGR375H1, GGR376H1, GGR377H1, GGR382H1, GGR386H1, GGR387H1, GGR389H1, GGR400H1, GGR416H1, GGR418H1, GGR419H1, GGR421H1, GGR424H1, GGR428H1, GGR429H1, GGR430H1, GGR431H1, GGR432H1, GGR433H1, GGR434H1, GGR437H1, GGR438H1, JGC439H1, GGR456H1, GGR458H1, GGR460H1, GGR462H1, GGR472H1, GGR473H1, GGR481H1, GGR482H1, GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR496H1, GGR497H1, GGR499H1, JGE321H1, JGE331H1, JIG322H1, JIG440H1, JUG320H1, JUG325H1, JGI216H1/​ JGU216H1, JGI346H1/​ JGU346H1, JGI454H1/​ JGU454H1

Group F (Optional Science Courses for Human Geography):
GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR301H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR310H1, GGR314H1, FOR310H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR388H1, GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR498H1

Focus in Planning (Specialist) - ASFOC1667B

The Planning Focus provides students with the opportunity to learn about how planning is a key component of the dynamic relations that exist between places, policy, power, and people. It focuses in on the conscious choices and decision made by various groups to shape the spatial organization of human activities. The Planning Focus will appeal to students who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the cultural, economic, political and social forces that shape the development and redevelopment of metropolitan and rural regions. Students are encouraged to explore the breadth of our courses that engage planning questions in relation to transportation, social segregation, health and housing, economic policy, environment change, and globalization.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Human Geography Specialist (ASSPE1667) program is required.

Completion Requirements:

Core (required) Courses: 1.0 credit from GGR217H1 and JGI346H1/​ JGU346H1

Planning Electives: 1.5 credits from GGR241H1, GGR259H1, JIG322H1, GGR338H1, GGR339H1, GGR343H1, GGR349H1, GGR354H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR416H1, GGR424H1, GGR428H1, GGR433H1, GGR434H1, GGR456H1, GGR460H1, GGR493Y1 (0.5 credit can be used based on internship)

Note: At least 1.0 credit must be 300/400-level courses.

Focus in Urban Geography (Specialist) - ASFOC1667S

The Focus in Urban Geography provides students with the opportunity to emphasize urban geography as part of their Human Geography specialist or major. Urban geography focuses on the political, social, cultural and economic processes that shape city life, development and policy. This focus will appeal to students registered in the Human Geography specialist or major program who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the dynamics that shape the urban realm. Students are encouraged to explore the breadth of our course offerings in housing, historical, political and transportation.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Human Geography Specialist (ASSPE1667) program is required.

Completion Requirements:

Required Urban Geography Courses: 1.0 credit from GGR124H1, GGR241H1, JGI216H1/​ JGU216H1, GGR259H1

Urban Geography Electives: 1.5 credits from GGR241H1, GGR259H1, GGR336H1, GGR339H1, GGR349H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR374H1, GGR382H1, GGR424H1, GGR458H1, GGR460H1, GGR482H1

Note: At least 1.0 credit must be 300/400-level courses.

Human Geography Major (Arts Program) - ASMAJ1667

The Human Geography programs provide the opportunity to learn about the relations between landscapes, places, people and nature, and the spatial organization of human activities. While students are encouraged to explore the breadth of the discipline, we also identify courses by theme for students who wish to develop expertise in one or two subfields (e.g., urban geography, cultural and historical geography). The Human Geography programs appeal to students who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the cultural, economic, political and social forces that shape how people use and experience the environments they live in. These programs offer training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Note: Double majors in Geography may only overlap 1.0 credit. Students combining any of our Minor programs with a Major Geography program will normally be allowed to overlap only 1.5 credits towards both programs.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is a limited enrolment program. Students must have completed 4.0 credits and meet the requirements listed below to enrol.

Variable Minimum Grade
A minimum grade is needed for entry, and this minimum changes each year depending on available spaces and the number of applicants. The following courses must be completed:

  • 0.5 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 67%, or
  • 1.0 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 63%

To ensure that students admitted to the program will be successful, applicants with a final grade or grade average lower than the minimum grades stated above will not be considered for admission. Please note that obtaining this minimum final grade does not guarantee admission to the program. Jointly-offered GGR courses will also be considered (e.g. JEG, JGI, JGE).

Completion Requirements:

First Year Geography Courses: Any two courses (1.0 credit) from JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR107H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Physical and Environmental Geography Course: Any course (0.5 credit) not used to satisfy first year course requirement from JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR223H1

Methods Courses: All (1.0 credit) of GGR270H1, GGR271H1

Regional Geography Course: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1

Fourth Year Course: Any course (0.5 credit) from 400-level courses from Group E.

Applications: Any 7 courses (3.5 credits) from Group E; Up to 1.0 credit can be from Group F. Up to 1.0 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Note: At least 2.0 credits must be 300/400-level courses. Of these, at least 0.5 must be at the 400-level (includes Fourth Year Course requirement).

Total credits: 7.0

Group E (Human Geography Courses)

GGR217H1, GGR221H1, GGR223H1, GGR225H1, GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR251H1, GGR252H1, GGR254H1, GGR259H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR299Y1, GGR320H1, GGR323H1, GGR324H1, GGR326H1, GGR327H1, GGR328H1, GGR329H1, GGR332H1, GGR334H1, GGR336H1, GGR338H1, GGR339H1, GGR340H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1, GGR349H1, GGR354H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR360H1, GGR363H1, GGR372H1, GGR373H1, GGR374H1, GGR375H1, GGR376H1, GGR377H1, GGR382H1, GGR386H1, GGR387H1, GGR389H1, GGR400H1, GGR416H1, GGR418H1, GGR419H1, GGR421H1, GGR424H1, GGR428H1, GGR429H1, GGR430H1, GGR431H1, GGR432H1, GGR433H1, GGR434H1, GGR437H1, GGR438H1, JGC439H1, GGR456H1, GGR458H1, GGR460H1, GGR462H1, GGR472H1, GGR473H1, GGR481H1, GGR482H1, GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR496H1, GGR497H1, GGR499H1, JGE321H1, JGE331H1, JIG322H1, JIG440H1, JUG320H1, JUG325H1, JGI216H1/​ JGU216H1, JGI346H1/​ JGU346H1, JGI454H1/​ JGU454H1

Group F (Optional Science Courses for Human Geography)

GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR301H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR310H1, FOR310H1, GGR314H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR388H1, GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR498H1

Focus in Planning (Major) - ASFOC1667A

The Planning Focus provides students with the opportunity to learn about how planning is a key component of the dynamic relations that exist between places, policy, power, and people. It focuses in on the conscious choices and decision made by various groups to shape the spatial organization of human activities. The Planning Focus will appeal to students who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the cultural, economic, political and social forces that shape the development and redevelopment of metropolitan and rural regions. Students are encouraged to explore the breadth of our courses that engage planning questions in relation to transportation, social segregation, health and housing, economic policy, environment change, and globalization.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Human Geography Major (ASMAJ1667) program is required.

Completion Requirements:

Core (required) Courses: 1.0 credit from GGR217H1 and JGI346H1/​ JGU346H1

Planning Electives: 1.5 credits from GGR241H1, GGR259H1, JIG322H1, GGR338H1, GGR339H1, GGR343H1, GGR349H1, GGR354H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR416H1, GGR424H1, GGR428H1, GGR433H1, GGR434H1, GGR456H1, GGR460H1, GGR493Y1 (0.5 credit can be used based on internship)

Note: At least 1.0 credit must be 300/400-level courses.

Focus in Urban Geography (Major) - ASFOC1667M

The Focus in Urban Geography provides students with the opportunity to emphasize urban geography as part of their Human Geography specialist or major. Urban geography focuses on the political, social, cultural and economic processes that shape city life, development and policy. This focus will appeal to students registered in the Human Geography specialist or major program who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the dynamics that shape the urban realm. Students are encouraged to explore the breadth of our course offerings in housing, historical, political and transportation.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Human Geography Major (ASMAJ1667) program is required.

Completion Requirements:

Required Urban Geography Courses: 1.0 credit from GGR124H1, GGR241H1, JGI216H1/​ JGU216H1, GGR259H1

Urban Geography Electives: 1.5 credits from GGR241H1, GGR259H1, GGR336H1, GGR339H1, GGR349H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR374H1, GGR382H1, GGR424H1, GGR458H1, GGR460H1, GGR482H1

Note: At least 1.0 credit must be 300/400-level courses.

Human Geography Minor (Arts Program) - ASMIN1667

The Human Geography programs provide the opportunity to learn about the relations between landscapes, places, people and nature, and the spatial organization of human activities. While students are encouraged to explore the breadth of the discipline, we also identify courses by theme for students who wish to develop expertise in one or two subfields (e.g., urban geography, cultural and historical geography). The Human Geography programs appeal to students who wish to develop an integrative understanding of the cultural, economic, political and social forces that shape how people use and experience the environments they live in. These programs offer training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Note: Double minors in Geography may only overlap 1.0 credit. Students combining any of our Minor programs with a Major/Specialist Geography program will normally be allowed to overlap only 1.5 credits towards both programs.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

Completion Requirements:

(4.0 credits)

First Year Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR107H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Applications: Any 6 courses (3.0 credits) from Group E, including at least 1.0 credit at the 300/400-level. One course (0.5 credit) can be from Group F. Up to 1.0 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Group E (Human Geography Courses):
GGR217H1, GGR221H1, GGR223H1, GGR225H1, GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR251H1, GGR252H1, GGR254H1, GGR259H1, GGR270H1, GGR271H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR299Y1, GGR320H1, GGR323H1, GGR324H1, GGR326H1, GGR327H1, GGR328H1, GGR329H1, GGR332H1, GGR334H1, GGR336H1, GGR338H1, GGR339H1, GGR340H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1, GGR349H1, GGR354H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1, GGR360H1, GGR363H1, GGR372H1, GGR373H1, GGR374H1, GGR375H1, GGR376H1, GGR377H1, GGR382H1, GGR386H1, GGR387H1, GGR389H1, GGR400H1, GGR416H1, GGR418H1, GGR419H1, GGR421H1, GGR424H1, GGR428H1, GGR429H1, GGR430H1, GGR431H1, GGR432H1, GGR433H1, GGR434H1, GGR437H1, GGR438H1, JGC439H1, GGR456H1, GGR458H1, GGR460H1, GGR462H1, GGR472H1, GGR473H1, GGR481H1, GGR482H1, GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR496H1, GGR497H1, GGR499H1, JGE321H1, JGE331H1, JIG322H1, JIG440H1, JUG320H1, JUG325H1, JGI216H1/​ JGU216H1, JGI346H1/​ JGU346H1, JGI454H1/​ JGU454H1

Group F (Optional Science Courses for Human Geography):
GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR301H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR310H1, FOR310H1, GGR314H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR388H1, GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR498H1

Environmental Geography Specialist (Arts Program) - ASSPE1252

A focus on the human-environment nexus is most explicit in these programs. Students learn about the social, spatial, and biophysical processes that shape society’s relationship to nature, management of resources, and contemporary environmental change. These programs appeal to non-science students who seek an environmental program that allows them to learn more about the natural processes that interact with social factors in shaping environments. These programs offer training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is a limited enrolment program. Students must have completed 4.0 credits and meet the requirements listed below to enrol.

Variable Minimum Grade
A minimum grade is needed for entry, and this minimum changes each year depending on available spaces and the number of applicants. The following courses must be completed:

  • 0.5 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 75%, or
  • 1.0 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 70%

To ensure that students admitted to the program will be successful, applicants with a final grade or grade average lower than the minimum grades stated above will not be considered for admission. Please note that obtaining this minimum final grade does not guarantee admission to the program. Jointly-offered GGR courses will also be considered (e.g. JEG, JGI, JGE).

Completion Requirements:

First Year Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR107H1 (recommended), JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Physical and Environmental Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR314H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, ENV200H1, ENV234H1

Methods & Core Courses: All (2.5 credits) of GGR223H1, GGR270H1, GGR271H1, GGR272H1, JGE331H1

Regional Geography Courses: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1

Fourth Year Courses: Either GGR491Y1 or one of GGR416H1, GGR492H1, GGR497H1 and one additional 0.5 credit 400 level course from Group A or Group B (1.0 credit). Up to one 0.5 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Application: Any 8 courses (4.0 credits) from Group A; up to 1.5 credits can be from Group B; up to 1.0 credit can be from Group C. Up to 1.0 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Note: At least 4.0 credits must be 300/400-level courses. Of these, at least 1.0 credit must be at the 400-level (includes Fourth Year Course requirement).

Total credits: 10.0

Group A (Environmental Geography Courses):
GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR223H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR301H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR310H1, GGR314H1, GGR323H1, GGR329H1, GGR332H1, GGR334H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR338H1, GGR340H1, GGR341H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR349H1, GGR372H1, GGR373H1, GGR386H1, GGR387H1, GGR388H1, GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR416H1, GGR418H1, GGR419H1, GGR434H1, GGR438H1, GGR481H1, GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR497H1, GGR498H1, JGE321H1, JGE331H1, JIG322H1, JIG440H1, JUG320H1

Group B (School of the Environment Courses):
ENV200H1, ENV234H1, ENV307H1, ENV323H1, ENV333H1, ENV335H1, ENV350H1, ENV395Y0, ENV396Y0, ENV422H1

Group C:
Any other GGR, JGE, JIG, JUG courses at the 200/300/400-level not listed in Group A.

Environmental Geography Major (Arts Program) - ASMAJ1252

A focus on the human-environment nexus is most explicit in these programs. Students learn about the social, spatial, and biophysical processes that shape society’s relationship to nature, management of resources, and contemporary environmental change. These programs appeal to non-science students who seek an environmental program that allows them to learn more about the natural processes that interact with social factors in shaping environments. These programs offer training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is a limited enrolment program. Students must have completed 4.0 credits and meet the requirements listed below to enrol.

Variable Minimum Grade
A minimum grade is needed for entry, and this minimum changes each year depending on available spaces and the number of applicants. The following courses must be completed:

  • 0.5 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 67%, or
  • 1.0 credit in GGR courses at the 100- or 200-level, with a minimum grade of 63%

To ensure that students admitted to the program will be successful, applicants with a final grade or grade average lower than the minimum grades stated above will not be considered for admission. Please note that obtaining this minimum final grade does not guarantee admission to the program. Jointly-offered GGR courses will also be considered (e.g. JEG, JGI, JGE).

Completion Requirements:

First Year Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR107H1 (recommended), JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Physical and Environmental Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR314H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, ENV200H1, ENV234H1

Methods & Core Courses: All (1.5 credits) of GGR223H1, GGR270H1, GGR271H1

Regional Geography Courses: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1

Fourth Year Course: Any course (0.5 credit) at the 400-level from Group A.

Applications: Any 5 courses (2.5 credits) from Group A; up to 1.0 credit can be from Group B; up to 0.5 credit can be from Group C.

Note: At least 2.0 credits must be 300/400-level courses. Of these, at least one 0.5 credit must be at the 400-level (includes Fourth Year Course requirement).

Total credits: 7.0

Group A (Environmental Geography Courses)

GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR223H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR301H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR310H1, GGR314H1, GGR323H1, GGR329H1, GGR332H1, GGR334H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR338H1, GGR340H1, GGR341H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR349H1, GGR372H1, GGR373H1, GGR386H1, GGR387H1, GGR388H1, GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR416H1, GGR418H1, GGR419H1, GGR434H1, GGR438H1, GGR481H1, GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR497H1, GGR498H1, JGE321H1, JGE331H1, JIG322H1, JIG440H1, JUG320H1

Group B (School of the Environment Courses)

ENV200H1, ENV234H1, ENV307H1, ENV323H1, ENV333H1, ENV335H1, ENV350H1, ENV395Y0, ENV396Y0, ENV422H1

Group C

Any other GGR, JGE, JIG, JUG courses at the 200/300/400-level not listed in Group A.

Environmental Geography Minor (Arts Program) - ASMIN1252

A focus on the human-environment nexus is most explicit in these programs. Students learn about the social, spatial, and biophysical processes that shape society’s relationship to nature, management of resources, and contemporary environmental change. These programs appeal to non-science students who seek an environmental program that allows them to learn more about the natural processes that interact with social factors in shaping environments. These programs offer training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

Completion Requirements:

(4.0 credits)

First Year Geography Courses: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR107H1 (recommended), JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Core Course: All (0.5 credit) of GGR223H1

Physical and Environmental Geography Course: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR314H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, ENV200H1, ENV234H1

Applications: Any 5 courses (2.5 credits) from Group A; up to 1.0 credit can be from Group B. Up to a 0.5 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Note: At least 1.0 credit must be 300/400-level courses.

Group A (Environmental Geography Courses):
GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR223H1, GGR270H1, GGR271H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR301H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, GGR310H1, GGR314H1, GGR323H1, GGR329H1, GGR332H1, GGR334H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR338H1, GGR340H1, GGR341H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR349H1, GGE372H1, GGR373H1, GGR386H1, GGR387H1, GGR388H1, GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR416H1, GGR418H1, GGR419H1, GGR434H1, GGR438H1, GGR481H1, GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR497H1, GGR498H1, JGE321H1, JGE331H1, JIG322H1, JIG440H1, JUG320H1

Group B (School of the Environment Courses):
ENV200H1, ENV234H1, ENV307H1, ENV323H1, ENV333H1, ENV335H1, ENV350H1, ENV395Y0, ENV396Y0, ENV422H1

Physical and Environmental Geography Specialist (Science Program) - ASSPE2030

Physical and Environmental Geography offers science-based programs for students interested in an integrative approach to understanding the earths biotic and abiotic systems, including their spatial dynamics and the ways they are altered by human action. The programs provide a foundation in the subfields of climatology, biogeography, hydrology, and geomorphology. Students gain practical experience in lab and field settings. Technical skills taught also include data analysis, geospatial analytical tools, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Physical and Environmental Geography Specialist will be administratively suspended as of January 31, 2024 and students will no longer be able to enrol in the program. Students presently enrolled in the Specialist will be able to complete the program requirements as described below. Students who are not enrolled in this program but are interested in “Physical and Environmental Geography” programs are encouraged to consider the Environmental Geography and/or Human Geography Programs in the Department of Geography and Planning and are strongly recommended to consult with the Department of Geography and Planning for advising.

Completion Requirements:

Introductory courses: Any 6 half courses or the equivalent (3.0 credits) from JEG100H1, BIO120H1/​ BIO130H1, CHM135H1, CHM136H1, PHY131H1/​ PHY151H1, PHY132H1/​ PHY152H1, MAT135H1, at least two of which must be Math or Physics half courses.

Core Courses: Any 4 courses (2.0 credits) from GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, up to one half course from Group H.

Regional Geography Courses: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1

Methods Courses: All (2.0 credits) of GGR270H1, GGR272H1, GGR337H1, GGR390H1

Applications: Any 7 courses (3.5 credits) from the Following:

  1. Hydrology/GIS/Remote Sensing: GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR373H1, GGR375H1, GGR386H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR462H1, GGR472H1
  2. Climatology/Energy/Resources: GGR314H1, GGR334H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR416H1
  3. Geomorphology: GGR301H1, GGR406H1, ESS241H1, ESS331H1
  4. Biogeography: GGR305H1, GGR308H1, ESS361H1, ESS461H1, ESS462H1

No more than one from GGR273H1, GGR373H1. Up to 1.0 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department. Any GGR course from the list for Core Courses and Fourth Year Courses not already used. Up to 1.5 credits from Group I. No more than one of GGR273H1, GGR373H1.

Fourth Year Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR401H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR415H1, GGR491Y1, GGR498H1, and 400-level courses in Group I. The total number of half courses from Group I (including 300-level courses) must not exceed 3 (1.5 credits). Up to one 0.5 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Total credits: 12.0

Group H:
CHM217H1, CHM310H1, ESS224H1, ESS261H1

Group I:
EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB324H1, EEB328H1, EEB428H1, ENV346H1, ESS262H1, ESS311H1, ESS361H1, ESS461H1, ESS463H1, ESS464H1, FOR301H1, FOR305H1, FOR306H1, FOR417H1, JEE337H1, PHY392H1, PHY408H1

Physical and Environmental Geography Major (Science Program) - ASMAJ2030

Physical and Environmental Geography offers science-based programs for students interested in an integrative approach to understanding the earths biotic and abiotic systems, including their spatial dynamics and the ways they are altered by human action. The programs provide a foundation in the subfields of climatology, biogeography, hydrology, and geomorphology. Students gain practical experience in lab and field settings. Technical skills taught also include data analysis, geospatial analytical tools, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Physical and Environmental Geography Major will be administratively suspended as of January 31, 2024 and students will no longer be able to enrol in the program. Students presently enrolled in the Major will be able to complete the program requirements as described below. Students who are not enrolled in this program but are interested in "Physical and Environmental Geography" programs are encouraged to consider the Environmental Geography and/or Human Geography Programs in the Department of Geography and Planning and are strongly recommended to consult with the Department of Geography and Planning for advising.

Completion Requirements:

Introductory Courses: Any 4 half courses or the equivalent (2.0 credits) from JEG100H1, BIO120H1/​ BIO130H1, CHM135H1, CHM136H1, PHY131H1, PHY132H1, MAT135H1

Core Courses: Any 3 courses (1.5 credits) from GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1

Regional Geography Course: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1, GGR341H1, GGR342H1, GGR343H1, GGR344H1

Methods Courses: All (1.5 credits) of GGR270H1, GGR272H1, GGR390H1

Applications: Any 4 courses (2.0 credits) from:

  1. Hydrology/GIS/Remote Sensing: GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR373H1, GGR375H1, GGR386H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR462H1, GGR472H1
  2. Climatology/Energy/Resources: GGR314H1, GGR334H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1, GGR416H1
  3. Geomorphology: GGR301H1, GGR406H1, ESS241H1, ESS331H1
  4. Biogeography: GGR305H1, GGR308H1, ESS361H1, ESS461H1, ESS462H1

    Up to 1.0 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department. Any GGR course from the list for Core Courses and Fourth Year Courses not already used. Any course (0.5 credit) from Group I. No more than one from GGR273H1, GGR373H1.

Fourth Year Course: Any course (0.5 credit) from GGR401H1, GGR405H1, GGR406H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1, GGR491Y1, GGR498H1

Total credits: 8.0

Group I:

EEB319H1, EEB321H1, EEB324H1, EEB328H1, EEB428H1, ENV346H1, ESS262H1, ESS311H1, ESS361H1, ESS461H1, ESS463H1, ESS464H1, FOR301H1, FOR305H1, FOR306H1, FOR417H1, JEE337H1, PHY392H1, PHY408H1

Physical and Environmental Geography Minor (Science Program) - ASMIN2030

Physical and Environmental Geography offers science-based programs for students interested in an integrative approach to understanding the earths biotic and abiotic systems, including their spatial dynamics and the ways they are altered by human action. The programs provide a foundation in the subfields of climatology, biogeography, hydrology, and geomorphology. Students gain practical experience in lab and field settings. Technical skills taught also include data analysis, geospatial analytical tools, including GIS and Remote Sensing.

Enrolment Requirements:

Enrolment in the Physical and Environmental Geography Minor will be administratively suspended as of January 31, 2024 and students will no longer be able to enrol in the program. Students presently enrolled in the Minor will be able to complete the program requirements as described below. Students who are not enrolled in this program but are interested in “Physical and Environmental Geography” programs are encouraged to consider the Environmental Geography and/or Human Geography Programs in the Department of Geography and Planning and are strongly recommended to consult with the Department of Geography and Planning for advising.

Completion Requirements:

First Year Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from JEG100H1 (recommended), GGR101H1, GGR107H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1

Core Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1

Methods Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR270H1, GGR272H1, GGR390H1

Applications: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from:

  1. Hydrology/GIS/Remote Sensing: GGR206H1, GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR373H1, GGR375H1, GGR386H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR462H1
  2. Climatology/Energy: GGR203H1, GGR314H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1
  3. Geomorphology: GGR201H1, GGR301H1, GGR406H1
  4. Biogeography: GGR205H1, GGR305H1, GGR308H1, ESS361H1, ESS461H1, ESS462H1

    No more than one (0.5) of GGR273H1, GGR274H1, GGR373H1, GGR375H1, GGR386H1. At least one Applications course (0.5 credit) must be 300-level or higher. Up to one 0.5 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approved by department.

Total credits: 4.0

Geographic Information Systems Minor (Arts Program) - ASMIN0305

The GIS program covers the on theoretical, technical and applied foundations for geographic information systems. Students learn methods for spatial data production, analysis and presentation using computer cartography, spatial analysis, remote sensing, and geovisualization. Problem solving and project design are emphasized in upper level courses, as students apply techniques to answer specific geographic questions. The GIS program is structured to provide a stand-alone minor for students in Geography and other disciplines seeking complementary skills in spatial analysis (e.g., field biology, archaeology).

Note: Students combining this program with a Specialist/Major sponsored by the Department of Geography will normally be allowed to count only 1.5 (of the 4.0) credits towards both programs.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

Completion Requirements:

(4.0 credits)

First Year Geography Courses: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from JEG100H1, GGR101H1, GGR107H1, GGR112H1, GGR124H1, GGR196H1, GGR197H1, GGR198H1, GGR199H1. 200/300-level GGR courses may also be used to meet this requirement. Contact the Undergraduate Administrator to update your program.

Methods & Core Courses: All (2.0 credits) of GGR270H1, GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR373H1

Applications: Any 2 courses (1.0 credit) from GGR225H1, GGR274H1, GGR315H1/​ GGR337H1, GGR372H1, GGR386H1, GGR413H1, GGR414H1/​ GGR415H1, GGR462H1, GGR472H1. Up to 0.5 credit can be used from GGR493Y1, based on suitability of placement for this program, and approval by department. Up to 0.5 credit from GGR491Y1, GGR492H1, GGR497H1, GGR498H1, and GGR499H1 based on suitability of research topic for this program, and approval by department.

Note: At least 1.0 credit must be 300/400-level courses

Environment and Energy Minor (Science Program) - ASMIN1552

Environment and Energy (Science Program) Joint Program with the School of the Environment

Jointly sponsored by the School of the Environment and the Department of Geography, this interdisciplinary program addresses the scientific, technological, environmental and policy aspects of energy use and supply, with a focus on the reduction of environmental impacts.

Note that the four full course equivalents that constitute the Minor Program are those listed below under Higher Years. For more information, please email the School of the Environment’s Undergraduate Student Advisor, David Powell, at ug.office.env@utoronto.ca.

Enrolment Requirements:

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

Completion Requirements:

(4.0 credits)

First Year Courses: 1.0 credit from ( MAT135H1 and MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1, and 1.0 credit from CHM135H1, CHM136H1, CHM151Y1, PHY131H1, PHY132H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1

All of: ENV221H1, ENV222H1/​ GGR223H1 (1.0 credit)

All of: ENV346H1, ENV350H1, ENV450H1 (1.5 credits)

Any two of: GGR332H1/​ ENV462H1, GGR310H1/​ FOR310H1, GGR314H1, GGR347H1, GGR348H1 (1.0 credit)

Any one of: CHM210H1, CHM310H1, CHM415H1, ENV237H1, ENV238H1, FOR310H1*/ GGR310H1*, FOR410H1, GGR203H1, GGR314H1*, GGR347H1*, GGR348H1*, HPS313H1, PHY231H1, PHY250H1 (* if not taken for the requirement immediately above) (0.5 credit)



Regarding Geography and Planning Courses

Prerequisites

Recommended Preparation: The course will be taught in a manner that assumes students have achieved the level of study (e.g., third year standing) and completed courses listed (or equivalent background).

Prerequisites: These are strictly monitored requirements. In some cases, prerequisites may be waived if equivalent background exists. Please consult the Associate Chair, Undergraduate or the course instructor.

 

Geography and Planning Courses

JEG100H1 - Introduction to Physical Geography and Earth Science

Hours: 24L/12P

This introduction to Physical Geography and Earth Sciences examines the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere, emphasizing processes, flows of energy and materials, and the interconnectedness of these Earth systems. Specific topics include weather and climate, earth materials, geological and geomorphic processes involved in the genesis of landforms, river systems, glaciers, soils, and biomes.

Exclusion: GGR100H1, ESS102H1, EESA06H3
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR101H1 - Histories of Environmental Change

Hours: 24L

This course will investigate geological, biological and archaeological evidence of environmental change. We will examine the processes that have driven and will drive environmental change and how past societies have shaped and responded to these changes. The emphasis is on the current interglacial period, or Holocene, and how shifts in population and technologies have affected human-environment interactions. As language of the Holocene gives way, for many, to that the Anthropocene, the implications of environmental change for present and future human societies will be our concluding concern.

Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

GGR107H1 - Environment, Food and People

Hours: 24L/12T

Examines the relations between food, nature, and society. Food is fundamental to human existence, and central to most cultures; it also has significant and widespread effects on the physical and social environments. Food is used as a lens to explore human-environment interactions locally and globally. Serves as an introduction to environmental and human geography.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR112H1 - Geographies of Globalization, Development and Inequality

Hours: 24L/8T

Economic growth, social change and environmental transformation are taking shape in an increasingly interconnected global context. This course introduces and examines critical geographic approaches to international development, economic globalization, poverty, and inequality. It pays particular attention to the roles of rural-urban and international migration in shaping specific landscapes.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR124H1 - Cities and Urban Life

Hours: 24L/6T

Offers an introduction to North American cities and urbanization in a global context. It explores social, cultural, political and economic forces, processes, and events that shape contemporary urbanism. The course adopts the lens of 'fixity' and 'flow' to examine how the movement of people, ideas, goods, and capital, as well as their containment in the infrastructure and space of the city, give rise to particular urban forms.

Exclusion: GGR207H5
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR196H1 - The Yard: Micro-Geographies of Household Outdoor Spaces

Hours: 24S

A “yard” is the area of land immediately adjacent to a building, often a residence. By examining micro-geographies (that is, detailed empirical studies of a small, specific locale) of these ubiquitous, everyday spaces, the course explores how yards are intimately connected with broader ecologies, cultures, and social relations, all of which can be explored using geographic theories and techniques.

The course also serves as an introduction to other subjects that are relevant to navigating post-secondary life, such as: critical reading; conducting university-level research; presenting and communicating ideas in the classroom; teamwork, and how to benefit from it; and developing social networks.

Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR197H1 - Nature, Conservation and Justice

Hours: 24S

Every day we read about climate change, species extinction, environmental degradation and the need for nature conservation. It is increasingly becoming apparent that the environmental problems that we face today arise from a deeper crisis relating to human ways of viewing and connecting to nature. This course asks how we can rework human ways of relating to nature, while querying the idea of “nature” and questioning the dominant approaches to nature conservation. It asks how can concerns for nature and for other species be balanced with that for human livelihoods and well-being? How can inequalities with regards to the distribution of environmental goods and bads be reduced? How are citizens and communities in the different parts of the world struggling against environmental injustice and to protect their local environments? How do these place-based movement demand justice and what visions do they articulate for a more just and sustainable world? How do indigenous worldviews offer conceptual resources for rethinking nature and our ways of relating to nature? The course will explore these questions using lectures, class discussion, videos and student presentations. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR198H1 - Mobility and Borders

Hours: 24S

This course examines the political geographies of transnational migration. It asks how spaces of migration and mobility are political, and how migration politics are tied to inequalities wrought through intersecting histories of race, class, and gender. It seeks to extend our understandings of migrants, borders, and mobility, and it explores the processes through which mobility is produced, delimited and structured. We will consider the transnational politics of migration, the militarization of border zones, and the political spaces of migrant displacement, dispossession, and dislocation. The seminar readings focus on classical paradigms as well as emerging approaches in immigration studies. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR199H1 - Global Racial Capitalism in the 21st Century

Hours: 24S

This course uses the tools of political economy, decolonial and anti-colonial theory, and critical approaches to the study of racism to explore how the construction of racial categories continues to be integral to the working of capitalist systems. We will explore the reasons why capitalism was never meant to work for everyone by examining how and why racial categories have continued to matter since capitalism's earliest formations. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR201H1 - Geomorphology

Hours: 24L/8P

This course introduces the principles of geomorphology, including the landforms and processes associated with water, wind, waves, and ice, as well as the human impacts on earth surface processes. Laboratory sessions occur irregularly during the semester to introduce assignments and provide support. A local field trip may be offered (transportation and entrance cost: approximately $26).

Exclusion: GGR201H5
Recommended Preparation: JEG100H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR203H1 - Introduction to Climatology

Hours: 36L

Introduction to the large scale processes responsible for determining global and regional climate and atmospheric circulation patterns, as well as the small scale processes responsible for determining the microclimates of specific environments.

Prerequisite: Physics SPH3U
Recommended Preparation: JEG100H1; MAT133Y1, MAT135H1, MAT136H1, MAT137Y1; PHY131H1, PHY132H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR205H1 - Introduction to Soil Science

Hours: 24L/4P

This course introduces soil science, including the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soils; soil formation and development; the classification of soils; and the application of soil science to environmental and agricultural issues. A field trip may be offered (transportation cost: approximately $21).

Recommended Preparation: CHM138H1/ CHM136H1, CHM139H1/ CHM135H1, JEG100H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR206H1 - Introduction to Hydrology

Hours: 30L/4P

Introduction to the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on the physical processes, including precipitation, interception, evaporation, runoff, ground water and soil water. Basic hydrological models will be practiced. Potential field trip, cost: approximately $21.

Recommended Preparation: JEG100H1; MAT135H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

JGU216H1 - Globalization and Urban Change

Previous Course Number: JGI216H1

Hours: 24L

Focusing on the impacts that global flows of ideas, culture, people, goods, and capital have on cities throughout the globe, this course explores some of the factors that differentiate the experiences of globalization and urban change in cities at different moments in history and in various geographic locations.

Exclusion: JGI216H1
Recommended Preparation: GGR124H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR217H1 - Urban Landscapes and Planning

Hours: 24L/4T

Considers the role of planning in shaping the urban landscape through historical and contemporary examples that illustrate the interplay of modernist and post-modernist approaches to city building. Traces the origins, competing rationalities and lingering effects of planning in the production of urban space. Broaches possibilities for engaging planning critically to address challenges of social and environmental justice in cities today.

Exclusion: GGR361H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR221H1 - New Economic Spaces

Hours: 24L/4T

Provides an introduction to economic geography and economic geography theory from the 1970s on, illustrating the different ways that geographers have conceptualized the restructuring of resource industries, manufacturing and services. The crisis of Fordism and the rise of new production models will be given particular attention, along with the reorganization of finance, the rise of cultural industries and the globalization of commodity chains. New regimes of governance of the economy will also be considered.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR223H1 - Environment, Society and Resources

Previous Course Number: GGR222H1

Hours: 24L/6T

Focuses on society-environment relations and different approaches to resource governance and management. This includes exploration of the spatial, social, and political economic origins and implications of humans' changing relations to nature. Drawing on debates from environmental governance and political ecology literatures, the course also investigates the ways that different actors and institutions have framed and sought solutions to environmental and resource challenges.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR225H1 - The Power of Maps and Geographic Information

Hours: 24L/4P

This course examines the changing role of geographic information and maps in society. It considers how spatial information is produced, organized, and used in different historical, cultural, and political contexts. Topics examined include: the effects of the shift from print to digital mapping; implications of mobile spatial technologies and the geoweb; open source and open access; production and control of spatial data and information; and alternative cartographies. Introduces concepts of Geospatial Literacy, Critical Mapping and Critical GIS.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR240H1 - Geographies of Colonialism in North America

Hours: 24L/5T

This course considers the creation and consolidation of settler colonies in the region known to many as North America. With an eye to the colonial present, the course focuses on the period from the 15th century to the early 20th century. Cultural texts and place-specific cases are used to ground themes and processes that also bear on the wider field of historical geography, including narratives of discovery and possession; ecological imperialism and environmental transformation; the (re)settlement of land and colonial government; enslavement and industrialization; frontiers, borders, and resource extraction; and some of the Indigenous geographies that preceded, were transformed by and transformed, and exceeded the reach of colonial power. Potential field trip.

Distribution Requirements: Humanities
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR246H1 - Geography of Canada

Hours: 24L

Social and economic differences have been, and continue to be, a prominent feature of Canada’s geography. In this course these differences are examined at a regional and local scale. The course adopts a thematic approach and considers issues such as historical development, urbanization, industrialization, immigration and population change, Canada’s cultural mosaic and native issues. Emphasis will be placed on the evolution of social and economic policies and Canada’s incorporation into a global economy.

Exclusion: GGR202H5
Recommended Preparation: GGR107H1, GGR124H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR251H1 - Geography of Innovation

Hours: 24L

Explores how new technologies and industries are generated and sustained, or failed to be. Focuses on the dynamics of leading technological sectors such as electronics, automobiles and biotechnology in their geographical and historical contexts. We critically scrutinise the iconic Silicon Valley along with other major innovative regions/nations, and investigate the key role of universities and finance in driving innovation and entrepreneurship.

Exclusion: GGR300H1 (2014-15)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR252H1 - Marketing Geography

Hours: 24L/4T

Geography matters in the success of both public and private sector organizations. Using mostly retail examples contemporary location problems are addressed. The geographies of demand and supply are analyzed and trade area and site selection techniques are applied. The relevance of the planning context and utility of geovisualization techniques such as GIS are also briefly considered.

Exclusion: GGR252H5
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR254H1 - Geography USA

Hours: 24L

After a short historical overview of the making of America, this course focuses on contemporary issues in American society, economy, politics, race, regional distinctions and disparities, urban development.

Distribution Requirements: Humanities, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR259H1 - Urban Growth and Decline

Hours: 24L

The growth and decline of cities have been and continue to be preoccupations of scholars and practitioners alike. This course is an introduction to the causes and consequences of urban growth and decline at the neighbourhood, municipal, and regional levels. Special attention will be paid to North American cities, but others outside of that sphere will be discussed as well. Concepts and topics will include a consideration of the following: rural to urban migration; industrialization and deindustrialization; urban renewal; suburbanization; austerity and neoliberalism; racial avoidance and discrimination; gentrification; and capital switching and uneven development.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR270H1 - Introductory Analytical Methods

Hours: 24L/12T

Theory and practical application of elementary quantitative techniques in geography emphasizing descriptive, inferential and spatial statistical analysis, probability, and sampling.

Exclusion: ECO220Y1/ ECO227Y1/ EEB225H1/ GGR270Y1/ LIN305H1/ POL232H1/ PSY201H1/ SOC202H1/ STA220H1/ STA248H1/ STA261H1
Recommended Preparation: 0.5 credit in Geography
Distribution Requirements: Social Science, Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR271H1 - Social Research Methods

Hours: 24L

Practical course on field methods designed to enable students to carry out their own research projects. Behavioural observation, interviewing, questionnaire design, sampling theory, content analysis of written and graphic material, data coding and focus groups.

Exclusion: SOC200H1/ SOC204H1/ CRI350H1/ ENV223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR272H1 - Geographic Information and Mapping I

Hours: 24L/24P

Introduction to digital mapping and spatial analysis using geographic information systems (GIS). Students learn how to use GIS software to find, edit, analyze and map geographic data to create their own maps, analyze geographic problems and use techniques that can be applied to a variety of subject areas.

Exclusion: GGRB30H3, GGR272H5
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR273H1 - Geographic Information and Mapping II

Hours: 24L/24P

Builds on GGR272H1 by providing students with practical spatial analysis methods and the underlying theory needed to understand how to approach various geographic problems using geographic information system (GIS) software and a variety of data types and sources.

Prerequisite: GGR272H1
Exclusion: GGRB32H3
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR274H1 - Introductory Computation and Data Science for the Social Sciences

Hours: 24L/12T

Social scientists are increasingly working with big and complex datasets that contain spatial, group-level, and individual-level dimensions to answer questions about society. In this course, students will develop introductory programming knowledge and data acumen in order to create and run computer programs to explore where, when, and why social processes occur, drawing on theories from geography, linguistics, sociology, anthropology, economics, political science, and psychology. Instruction will focus on applying current data analysis libraries, communicating and translating data science methods to both researchers and the public, distinguishing causation from correlation and coincidence, and negotiating tradeoffs between different computational and statistical approaches.

Exclusion: CSC111H1, CSC148H1, STA130H1, STA238H1, STA248H1, STA261H1, EEB125H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR299Y1 - Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities…. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR301H1 - Fluvial Geomorphology

Hours: 24L/4P

Elements of drainage basin morphology and hydrology, classification of rivers, stream patterns and hydraulic geometry. Elements of open channel flow, sediment transport and the paleohydrology of river systems. River channel adjustments to environmental change, human impact and the management/design of river habitats. Exercises include experimentation in a laboratory flume. A field trip may be offered (at no cost). Course usually offered every other year.

Prerequisite: GGR201H1. Students who do not meet the prerequisite are encouraged to contact the instructor.
Recommended Preparation: 10.0 credits including JEG100H1/ GGR100H1 and ECO220Y1/ ECO227Y1/ EEB225H1/ GGR270H1/ GGR270Y1/ LIN305H1/ POL222H1/ POL242Y1/ PSY201H1/ SOC202H1/ STA220H1/ STA248H1/ STA250H1/ STA261H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR305H1 - Biogeography

Hours: 24L

Biogeography aims to identify and explain patterns of plant and animal distributions through space and time. This course considers topics including ecological and evolutionary dynamics, dispersal, migration, plate tectonics, speciation, extinction, paleoenvironments, and island biogeography. We will examine terrestrial and marine biomes, the meaning of biodiversity, conservation challenges, and recent biogeographic changes associated with human activities.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR305H5
Recommended Preparation: JEG100H1 or ( BIO120H1, BIO130H1)
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

GGR308H1 - Canadian Arctic and Subarctic Environments

Hours: 24L

This course explores Arctic and Subarctic regions through topics including climate, the cryosphere, hydrology, geomorphology, and ecosystems. The current stresses of climate change are considered throughout the course, including the impacts on communities in Arctic Canada.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: JEG100H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR314H1 - Global Warming

Hours: 30L/6T

A comprehensive examination of the greenhouse warming problem, beginning with economic, carbon cycle, and climate model projections; impacts on and adaptive responses of agriculture, forests, fisheries, and water resources; options and policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Exclusion: GGR377H5
Recommended Preparation: Completion of a secondary/high school physics course will be beneficial. 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit from JEG100H1; MAT133Y1, MAT135H1, MAT136H1, MAT137Y1; PHY131H1, PHY132H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1
Distribution Requirements: Science, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR315H1 - Environmental Remote Sensing

Previous Course Number: GGR337H1

Hours: 24L/24P

Principles of optical, active and passive microwave remote sensing; satellite orbit and sensor characteristics; image processing and analysis techniques and software; and environmental remote sensing applications.

Exclusion: GGR337H1, GGR337H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits, JEG100H1/ GGR100H1, GGR272H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

JUG320H1 - The Canadian Wilderness

Hours: 24L

The idea of wilderness permeates narratives of Canadian national identity, while policy-makers seek to manage and contain natural areas. This course compares and contrasts historical and contemporary wilderness narratives in literature, painting and film with policies in areas such as conservation, urban planning, land claims and tourism.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Thought, Belief and Behaviour (2)

GGR320H1 - Geographies of Transnationalism, Migration, and Gender

Hours: 24L

This course examines recent changes in global migration processes. Specifically, the course addresses the transnationalization and feminization of migrant populations and various segments of the global labor force. The coursework focuses on analyzing classical paradigms in migration studies, as well as emerging theoretical approaches to gender and migration. In addition, it traces the shifting empirical trends in gendered employment and mobility patterns. It uses in-depth case study material to query the frameworks employed in migration studies and to understand the grounded implications of gendered migration. It pays particular attention to the interventions made by feminist geographers in debates about work, migration, place, and space.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JGE321H1 - Multicultural Perspectives on Environmental Management

Hours: 24L

Diverse approaches to environmental issues in a variety of multicultural settings are introduced, compared and analyzed, using case studies. Perspectives on environmental management will be discussed as they emerge from contexts such as Latin America, Asia, or Africa.

Prerequisite: ENV221H1/ ENV222H1/ GGR222H1/ GGR223H1
Exclusion: ENV321Y1
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JIG322H1 - Indigenous Worlds, Worldviews and the Environment

Hours: 24L

Explores the diverse ways of understanding and responding to the world that emerge from indigenous cultures around the world. Examines how indigenous ways of being and relating to their natural environment can help us understand and address the current environmental crisis. Using examples of indigenous activism from Canada and around the world, examines how colonial histories shape dispossession and marginalization and inform visions for the future. Topics include traditional ecological knowledge, place-based social movements, environmental concerns of indigenous peoples, bio-cultural restoration and decolonization of nature-human relations.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including one of INS200H1, INS201Y1, INS250H1, GGR107H1, GGR124H1, GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1
Exclusion: JAG321H1, GGR321H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR323H1 - Commons, Commoning and Nature

Previous Course Number: GGR387H1

Hours: 24L

This course examines the role of commons and commoning practices in rethinking how we share natural resources, nurture life-in-common and build more meaningful worlds. Topics covered include: the political and economic history of the commons and their erasure; social and environmental movements; geographies of commons governance; urban commons; more-than-human commons; and post-capitalist alternatives to address ecosystem emergencies. The course draws from Institutional and complexity theory; feminist decolonial theory; Indigenous philosophy; Black feminist thought; new materialism and posthumanism to understand the challenges and possibilities of reviving commons and commoning practices.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR387H1 (Special Topics in Environmental Geography: Commons, Commoning and Ecologies of Care in a Post-Covid World), offered in Winter 2021
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in GGR, including GGR223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR324H1 - Spatial Political Economy

Previous Course Number: POL371H1

Hours: 24L

This course aims to explore how economic agents act and interact in space and how this creates subdivisions within the global, national and regional political economy. In a largely conceptual and interdisciplinary manner, the course investigates the role of institutions in the relational economy and the spatial construction of the political economy. Institutions are viewed as formal or informal stabilizations of economic interaction. Questions which guide the analysis are related to how institutions are established, how they evolve, how they impact economic action, and how they are changed through political and economic action at different spatial scales. Through this, the course introduces a relational and spatial perspective to the analysis of economic action and institutions. This perspective is based on the assumption that economic action is situated in socio-institutional contexts, evolves along particular paths and, at the same time, remains fundamentally contingent. Topics to be discussed include the social construction of economic space, industrial organization and location, the establishment and maintenance of economic networks, as well as processes of firm formation, learning and knowledge creation.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: POL371H1
Recommended Preparation: One of ECO101H1, GGR112H1, GGR221H1, GGR251H1, GGR252H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JUG325H1 - Landscapes of Violence in Canada

Hours: 24L

This course examines how violence is enacted in Canada, at various scales, and across domestic, urban, national, and international landscapes. We will interrogate what is meant by violence; examine its colonial, racial and patriarchal dimensions; explore the impact on people and communities; and attend to forms of resistance and repair.

Recommended Preparation: CDN267H1, CDN268H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR326H1 - Remaking the Global Economy

Hours: 24L

Examines links between global economic integration and geographically uneven economic development. Focuses on debates and empirical studies on global production networks (GPNs), and associated issues such as offshoring, outsourcing, and upgrading. Blends analysis of both theory and practice of business firms and regional development. Seeks to develop an in-depth understanding of the key actors driving contemporary global economic transformation, within the 'transnational space' constituted and structured by transnational firms, state institutions, and ideologies.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR300H1 (Special Topics in Geography I: Remaking the Global Economy), offered in Winter 2014
Recommended Preparation: GGR112H1/ GGR220H1/ GGR221H1/ GGR251H1, 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3) at the 200+ level
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR327H1 - Geography and Gender

Hours: 24L

Introduction to the work of feminist geographers. The course will explore the relationship between gender and space, emphasizing spatial cognition, architecture, and layout of the city.

Exclusion: GGR313H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR328H1 - Labour Geographies

Hours: 24L

Explores changes in the nature of work and the structure and geography of labour markets. Topics will include globalization, lean production, flexibility and risk, industrial relations, workfare, the body at work, and gender and work.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR329H1 - The Global Food System

Hours: 24L

Explores the changing global geographies of food by tracing international movements of food through both mainstream and 'alternative' supply chains. The implications for sustainability, food security, community autonomy and health are investigated.

Exclusion: GGR287H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3). GGR107H1 recommended.
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JGE331H1 - Resource and Environmental Theory

Hours: 24L

Introduction to and critical evaluation of major ideas and conceptual traditions underpinning environmental and natural resource politics and regulation. Topics include: parks and protected areas, market-based environmental regulation, property rights and conservation, Malthusianism, and biodiversity conservation. Emphasis is placed on critical reading of primary texts.

Prerequisite: GGR100H1/ JEG100H1/ GGR107H1/ ENV221H1/ ENV222H1/ GGR222H1/ GGR223H1
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR332H1 - Social Geographies of Climate Change

Previous Course Number: GGR387H1

Hours: 24L

Analyses the social and behavioural geographies of climate change, including: climate change communication (how we interpret and communicate climate science); climate change prevention strategies, from the macro to micro scale; and possibilities for climate change adaptation.

Exclusion: GGR387H1 (Special Topics in Environmental Geography: The Social Geographies of Climate Change), offered in Winter 2020
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits, GGR223H1, GGR271H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR334H1 - Water Resource Management

Hours: 24L

Managing demand and supply; linkages between water quality and human health. Case studies from the industrial world and from developing countries, rural and urban. Implications of population growth and climate change for water resource management.

Exclusion: GGR288H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including one of JEG100H1/ GGR100H1, GGR107H1, GGR223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR336H1 - Urban Historical Geography of North America

Hours: 24L

This course explores the emergence and reproduction of class and racial social spaces, the development of new economic spaces, and the growing importance of the reform and planning movements. Emphasis is on metropolitan development between 1850 and 1950.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including one of GGR124H1, GGR241H1, GGR254H1
Distribution Requirements: Humanities, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR338H1 - Social Transformation and Environment in the Majority World

Hours: 24L

This course draws upon a number of geographical theories, debates and case studies to explore the geographical implications of an increasingly interconnected global capitalist economy for interactions among the people and environments in places in the ‘majority world’. Situated within the context of climate change this course examines the evolution of discourses of ‘development’ and their relationship to western (Anglo-American) racialized notions of progress and modernity.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including one of GGR107H1, GGR223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR339H1 - Urban Geography, Planning and Political Processes

Hours: 24L

Investigates North American urban political geography, exploring conflicts over immigration, environment, gentrification, homelessness, labour market restructuring, ‘race’ and racism, urban sprawl, nature and environment, gender, sexuality, security, and segregation. Explores competing visions of city life and claims on urban space. The course investigates how these struggles connect to economic, social and environmental politics at larger spatial scales, and considers different theoretical frameworks that geographers have developed to make sense of both the persistence of old problems and the emergence of new ones. Potential field trip, cost: approximately $21.

Exclusion: GGR349H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including GGR124H1, GGR246H1/ GGR254H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR340H1 - Health Geography

Hours: 24L

An exploration of the aspects of health in which place or location matters. Particular attention will be paid to the role of environments (physical, social, etc.) in explaining differences in health between places, the structuring of health-related behaviour in place, and the development of health policy for places.

Prerequisite: GGR270H1, or the combination of STA220H1 and HST250H1
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits, including GGR223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR341H1 - The Changing Geography of Latin America

Hours: 24L

Seeks to develop a general understanding of present-day Latin America by focusing on human-environment interactions, past and present. Case studies are used to understand the diversity of Latin American landscapes (physical and cultural), and how they are changing within the context of globalization.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 1.0 in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR342H1 - The Changing Geography of Southeast Asia

Hours: 24L

Examines changes in the social, political and economic geography of Southeast Asian countries. Examples drawn from Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines as these emerging newly industrialized countries enter the 21st century. Emphasis on political-economy, urbanization and environment since 1950.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR343H1 - The Changing Geography of China

Hours: 36L

The evolving social, political and economic landscape of China. Focus on development strategies and their effects on agriculture, industry, urbanization, city planning and the environment since 1949. Special attention paid to the interconnected development trajectories shaping urban and rural areas, together with the complex interactions between the built and social environments.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR344H1 - Institutions and Governance: Germany in Comparative Perspective

Previous Course Number: POL372H1

Hours: 24L

The goal of this course is to explore the structure and geography of the German political economy in the context of economic globalization by systematically comparing institutional conditions with those in other countries. This perspective enables us to identify different capitalist systems and characterize Germany as a more socially balanced economic governance model compared with market-liberal systems in the US, UK and Canada. Drawing on the varieties-of-capitalism and other approaches, the main themes in the course address the institutional conditions for development. In a comparative perspective, the course explores topics, such as the role of collective agents and collective bargaining, corporate governance and finance, inter-firm co-operation and regional networks, social security systems, and population structure and immigration. To better understand the current challenges to the German governance model, the institutional opportunities and limitations are investigated under which different regional economies develop in unequal ways.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: POL372H1
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 GGR or POL credit
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JGU346H1 - The Urban Planning Process

Previous Course Number: JGI346H1

Hours: 24L

Overview of how planning tools and practice shape the built form of cities. This course introduces twentieth century physical planning within its historical, social, legal, and political contexts. Community and urban design issues are addressed at local and regional scales and in both central cities and suburbs. The focus is on Toronto and the Canadian experience, with comparative examples from other countries, primarily the United States. Transportation costs: $20.

Exclusion: JGI346H1, GGR361H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including GGR124H1, URB235H1, URB236H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR347H1 - Efficient Use of Energy

Previous Course Number: JGE347H1

Hours: 24L/6T

Examines the options available for dramatically reducing our use of primary energy with no reduction in meaningful energy services, through more efficient use of energy at the scale of energy-using devices and of entire energy systems. Topics covered include energy use in buildings, transportation, industry, and agriculture. Offered alternate years from GGR348H1.

Prerequisite: Physics SPH3U
Exclusion: GGR333H1, JGE347H1
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including first year Math and/or Physics
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR348H1 - Carbon-Free Energy

Previous Course Number: JGE348H1

Hours: 24L/6T

Examines the options available for providing energy from carbon-free energy sources: solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and fossil fuels with capture and sequestration of CO2. The hydrogen economy is also discussed. Offered alternate years from GGR347H1.

Prerequisite: Physics SPH3U
Exclusion: GGR333H1, JGE348H1
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including first year Math and/or Physics
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR349H1 - Managing Urban Natures

Hours: 24L

Recent calls to action by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the World Wildlife Fund indicate we are at a crossroads in responding to accelerating global warming and biodiversity loss. Cities are often at the forefront of these transformations, both in feeling their effects but also initiating responses. How might we reimagine our cities in a way that promotes thriving and equitable ecosystems? What tools exist in the policy landscape to initiate needed changes? What innovative responses are emerging to confront the challenges of increased flooding, rising temperatures, habitat fragmentation, and food insecurity? How might we reimagine an urban commons? With a primary focus on Canadian cities, in this course we explore the ways divergent conceptualizations of urban-nature have informed policies and practices drawing largely from critical, political ecology, and Indigenous perspectives; the policy landscape that informs current urban planning; and new and innovative approaches that help us to reshape and reimagine our relationships to urban nature, including initiatives led by municipalities, non-government organizations and citizens groups.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR300H1 (Topics: Managing Urban Natures), offered in Fall 2017
Recommended Preparation: GGR223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR354H1 - Infrastructure

Previous Course Number: GGR300H1 (20175)

Hours: 24L

Infrastructure is the term that describes the transportation systems, sewers, pipes, and power lines that provide urban dwellers with necessary public services. In recent years, billions of dollars of public money have been spent upgrading existing infrastructure, and planning and delivering new facilities. Infrastructure has many impacts on the way that people in cities live. The way that infrastructure systems are planned, financed, and distributed impact on environmental sustainability, job creation, social equity, economic development, and urban livability. Moreover, infrastructure has the potential to both serve existing populations, and shape the way that future communities are built. Through lectures, discussions, workshops, readings of scholarly articles and case studies, the course will aim to engage students in the key topics and debates related to the provision of urban infrastructure. Topics to be covered will include: project planning, causes and cures for cost overruns, funding models, financing mechanisms such as public-private partnerships, and the politics of facility planning and management.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR300H1 (Topics: Infrastructure), offered in Summer 2017
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR357H1 - Housing and Community Development

Hours: 24L

Focuses on the importance of adequate housing and quality neighbourhoods. It roots theoretical explanations and policy debates in realities using Canada and Toronto as examples. Topics covered include the evolution of public policies relating to social housing, rental housing, homeownership, neighborhoods, and homelessness.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including GGR124H1 and 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR359H1 - Comparative Urban Policy

Hours: 24L

This course considers urban public policy. Urban policy is not natural or inevitable response to urban problems. It is actively produced (and contested) by an array of voices, institutions, and social forces. Actualized urban policies are thus best understood and evaluated as products of these influences. The first half of the course will cover broad theoretical matters pertaining to the production of urban policy. The second half of the course will focus more intensively on one problem—urban decline—and explore the actualized approaches that have been brought to bear to manage it.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR360H1 - Culture, History, and Landscape

Hours: 24L

The history of approaches to the idea of landscape. A consideration of the origins and uses of the term in geographical inquiry will be followed by a series of case studies, global in scope, from the Early Modern period to the present. Emphasis will be placed on the representational and lived aspects of landscapes, as well as struggles over their definition, interpretation, and use.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (HUM/BR=1 or SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Humanities
Breadth Requirements: Creative and Cultural Representations (1)

GGR363H1 - Critical Geographies: An Introduction to Radical Ideas on Space, Society and Culture

Hours: 36L

Introduces a diversity of critical perspectives for geographers and others, including anarchism, Marxism, feminism, sexual politics, postcolonialism, anti-imperialism and anti-racism. In so doing it illustrates how such radical ideas about space, society and culture have contributed to our political thought and action.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Humanities, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR372H1 - GIS for Public Health

Hours: 24L/12P

The goal of this course is to leave students with appreciation of the power of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore and analyze spatial health and medical data. The course will focus on organizing health data in a GIS, clustering detection methods, and basic spatial statistics. Other topics like agent-based models and visualization techniques will be touched upon. Lab work will provide hands on experience with example data, leaving students with a firm grasp of contemporary health and medical problems and a skill set of spatial analytical methods that can be used to solve them.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including GGR272H1
Exclusion: GGR300H1(2015-2016), GGR335H5
Recommended Preparation: GGR270H1, GGR272H1
Distribution Requirements: Science, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR373H1 - Advanced Geographic Information Systems

Hours: 24L/24P

Advanced theory, techniques, and applications in geographic information systems (GIS), including interpolation, geostatistics, modeling, and raster and vector analysis. GIS project design and implementation.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including GGR273H1
Distribution Requirements: Science, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR374H1 - Urban Dynamics

Hours: 24L

This course will focus on the social and economic repercussions associated with the formation and evolution of polynuclear urban regions in response to global economic restructuring. Foci will include the importance of knowledge and innovation in the process of economic development, social and economic polarization at multiple spatial scales, planning interventions to address these polarities, and strategies and tactics in the promotion of more sustainable urban-centred regional economies.

Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including 2.0 credits in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3). A statistics course ( GGR270H1 or other) will be an asset.
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR375H1 - Introduction to Programming in GIS

Hours: 24L

This course will introduce students to the fundamentals of programming, followed by an applied focus on using these skills in geographic information systems. Students will learn how to programmatically edit spatial data, automate common processes, and conduct complex spatial analyses. The course will emphasize open-source software that enriches geospatial data analysis alongside the data processing and analytical capabilities of existing GIS software. Classroom time will be a mix of short lectures and laboratory exercises.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including GGR272H1
Exclusion: GGR386H1 (Special Topics in Geographic Information Systems: Programming in GIS), offered in Fall 2019 and Winter 2021
Recommended Preparation: One of CSC108H1 or CSC120H1; GGR273H1, GGR274H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR376H1 - Geovisualization

Hours: 24L

Visualizing geographic information forms an important step in aiding visual thinking, generating hypotheses, and communicating findings relating to places. Geovisualization not only involves the display of spatial data through static maps, but also the process of creating 3D, dynamic, or interactive visualizations for data exploration, insights, and analysis. This course will introduce the foundations and capabilities of geovisualization for scientific communication, and students will learn techniques and tools to develop and critically appraise a range of geovisual outputs.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits including GGR272H1
Exclusion: GGR386H1 (Special Topic: Geovisualization), offered in Fall 2022
Recommended Preparation: GGR273H1, GGR274H1
Distribution Requirements: Science, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)
Course Experience: University-Based Experience

GGR377H1 - Introduction to Urban Data Analytics

Hours: 24L/12P

This course draws on census and economic data collection, processing, and analysis to teach written and visual storytelling about cities with data and maps, while exploring the uses of real-time data and analytics to solve urban problems. It provides a socio-economic and political context for the use of big data and the smart cities movement, focusing on data ethics and governance.

Prerequisite: 8.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGR270H1/ ECO220Y1/ ECO227Y1/ EEB225H1/ GGR270Y1/ LIN305H1/ POL222H1/ POL242Y1/ PSY201H1/ SOC202H1/ STA220H1/ STA248H1/ STA250H1/ STA261H1, GGR272H1, GGR274H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR382H1 - Field Course in Human Geography

Introduction to field studies in human geography. The course includes exercises and a project during a one-week field study in late August or early September, some preparation during the preceding summer and complementary practical work and/or seminars during the Fall Term. Each student is required to pay the costs of their transportation and accommodation (field trip costs: $600). Students must submit an application directly to the Department in the spring (see the Geography website for details in March). Course may be limited by size. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: Permission of instructor
Exclusion: GGR389H5
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR385H1 - Special Topics in Geography

Previous Course Number: GGR300H1

Hours: 24L

Content in any given year varies by instructor. Students must meet the prerequisites set by the department (see the Geography website for details in May). The program in which this course can be used depends on its content.

GGR386H1 - Special Topics in Geographic Information Systems

Previous Course Number: GGR300H1

Hours: 24L

Content in any given year varies by instructor. Students must meet the prerequisites set by the department (see the Geography website for details in May). Can be used towards GIS, Human Geography, and Environmental Geography programs.

Prerequisite: GGR272H1

GGR387H1 - Special Topics in Environmental Geography

Previous Course Number: GGR300H1

Hours: 24L

Content in any given year varies by instructor. Students must meet the prerequisites set by the department (see the Geography website for details in May). Can be used towards Environmental Geography and Human Geography programs.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR388H1 - Special Topics in Physical & Environmental Geography

Previous Course Number: GGR300H1

Hours: 24L

Content in any given year varies by instructor. Students must meet the prerequisites set by the department (see the Geography website for details in May). Can be used towards Physical & Environmental Geography and Environmental Geography programs.

Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR389H1 - Special Topics in Human Geography

Previous Course Number: GGR300H1

Hours: 24L

Content in any given year varies by instructor. Students must meet the prerequisites set by the department (see the Geography website for details in May). Can be used towards Human Geography programs.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR390H1 - Field Methods

Introduction to field methods in geomorphology, vegetation mapping/analysis, soils, hydrology, and climatology. The course includes exercises and a group project during a one-week field camp, a little preparation during the preceding summer, and complementary practical work and/or seminars during the Fall Term. Each student is required to pay the costs of their transportation and accommodation (field trip costs: approximately $485). This course meets the field requirement for Physical & Environmental Geography programs. The field camp normally runs for one week at the end of August. Students must submit an application directly to the Department in the spring (see the Geography website for details in March). Course may be limited by size. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 1.0 credit from JEG100H1, GGR201H1, GGR203H1, GGR205H1, GGR206H1, GGR305H1, ENV234H1, or permission of the instructor
Recommended Preparation: 8.0 credits including GGR270H1
Distribution Requirements: Science

GGR398H0 - Research Excursions

An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities…. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR398Y0 - Research Excursions

An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities…. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR399Y1 - Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities…. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

GGR400H1 - Special Topics in Geography I

Hours: 24S

Content in any given year depends on instructor. The program in which this course can be used depends on its context. Consult Departmental Office in April.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 2.0 GGR credits (HUM/BR=1 or SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR401H1 - Special Topics in Geography II

Content in any given year depends on instructor. The program in which this course can be used depends on its context. Consult Departmental Office in April.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 2.0 credits (SCI/BR=4) in any of GGR/ESS/BIO/CHM/EEB/FOR
Distribution Requirements: Science

GGR406H1 - Geomorphology and the Anthropocene

Hours: 12L/12S

In this seminar course, we will explore the nature of geomorphology and the Anthropocene (the proposed geological time interval during which human activities have greatly impacted the global environment) using a combination of lectures, readings, and discussions. We will consider the ways in which hillslope, fluvial, coastal, aeolian, and other domains have been altered or influenced by humans and consider the role of geomorphology as a science for understanding and examining the changes in landscape form and processes.

Prerequisite: GGR201H1
Exclusion: GGR401H1 (Special Topics in Geography II: Geomorphology and the Anthropocene), offered in Winter 2020
Recommended Preparation: 10.0 credits, GGR272H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR413H1 - Watershed Hydroecology

Hours: 24L

Modern developments in hydrology and ecology, including form and process models, interactions of hydrology, ecology and geomorphology; the course emphasizes the use of computer simulation models of drainage basin processes.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: GGR201H1, GGR206H1, GGR270H1, GGR272H1 or GGR337H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR415H1 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Previous Course Number: GGR414H1

Hours: 18L/8T/4P/2S

Building on GGR315H1 (formerly GGR337H1) Environmental Remote Sensing with advanced theories and techniques for land cover mapping, vegetation biophysical and biochemical parameter retrievals, optical and thermal remote sensing of urban environment, and application of satellite remote sensing to terrestrial water and carbon cycle estimation. Basic radiative transfer theories as applied to vegetation will be given in some detail as the basis for various remote sensing applications. Optical instruments for measuring vegetation structural parameters will be demonstrated in the field.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including GGR315H1/ GGR337H1
Exclusion: GGR414H1
Recommended Preparation: GGR272H1, GGR273H1, GGR373H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR416H1 - Environmental Impact Assessment

Hours: 24L/4T

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has emerged as a key component of environmental planning and management. EIAs are planning tools to predict and assess the potential costs and benefits of proposed projects, policies, and plans and avoid or mitigate the adverse impacts of these proposals. This course focuses on the origins, principles, scope, and purpose of EIA from theoretical and practical perspectives, emphasizing the Canadian context. We will also explore the various components of EIAs and critically evaluate techniques to assess, predict, and mitigate impacts. Through course readings, in-class activities, and assignments, we will engage critiques of EIAs, particularly as they relate to considerations of climate change, sustainability, long-term monitoring, meaningful public engagement, indigenous people’s rights, dispossession and resettlement, and environmental justice. Case studies will allow students to learn about current practices in EIA and develop skills to examine and improve EIA processes.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits and 2.0 GGR credits including GGR270H1, GGR271H1
Recommended Preparation: One of GGR222H1/ GGR223H1 or ENV236H1/ JGE236H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR418H1 - Geographies of Extraction

Hours: 24S

Examines political aspects of the appropriation of natural resources, including policy and regulation, environmental impacts, and social justice. Emphasis is placed on reading contemporary literature on the politics of resource access and control from geography and other social science disciplines.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including GGR223H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR419H1 - Environmental Justice

Hours: 24S

Examines how environmental problems affect people, communities and societies differentially and how marginalized communities and people often bear the brunt of environmental costs, while contributing little to their creation. It uses readings and case studies from across the globe to address the production of environmental injustice and the struggle for environmental justice.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR421H1 - Histories of Geographical Thought

Hours: 24S

The history of geography as an intellectual subject, focusing primarily on the modern period, and on the genealogies of central concepts. Disciplinary developments will be situated next to broader contexts, including imperialism and militarism, the relationship between culture and nature, and the shifting social role of the academy.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 2.0 credits in Geography (HUM/BR=1 or SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Humanities
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR424H1 - Transportation Geography and Planning

Previous Course Number: GGR324H1

Hours: 24L

Introductory overview of major issues in interurban and intraurban transportation at the local, national and international scale. Topics include urban transportation, land use patterns and the environment, causes of and cures for congestion, public transit, infrastructure finance, and transport planning and policy setting.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including one of GGR124H1/ GGR217H1/ GGR221H1
Exclusion: CITC18H3
Recommended Preparation: GGR270H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR428H1 - Alternative Economies: Another Economy is Possible

Hours: 24S

Between neoliberal capitalism and state socialism are many innovative enterprise models to empower people and protect the planet. This course compares the range of such enterprise models across the three factors of production – land, labour, and capital – from community companies to cooperatives, peer-to-peer non-profit technologies, credit unions, community land trusts and beyond. Planning/policy's role in their development in different spaces and places, both urban and rural, is evaluated. Relevant multi-disciplinary and geographical conceptual frameworks -- alternative, diverse, and community economies; the commons/commoning; community control; economic democracy; social and solidarity economies; and feminist and BIPOC economic frameworks -- are also compared.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: Two of: GGR124H1, GGR221H1, GGR324H1, GGR328H1, GGR339H1, GGR357H1, GGR359H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR429H1 - Innovation and Governance

Previous Course Number: POL408H1

Hours: 24S

The course focuses on a broad range of topics related to innovation and governance, such as (i) technological change and its social and economic consequences, (ii) the spatial effects which result from this, and (iii) the necessities for economic policies at different territorial levels. Since international competitiveness of industrialized economies cannot be based on cost advantages alone, future growth in the knowledge-based economy will be increasingly associated with capabilities related to creativity, knowledge generation and innovation. As a consequence, questions regarding the performance in innovation and effectiveness of policy support become decisive at the firm level, regional level and national level. The first part of the course deals with conceptual foundations of innovation processes, such as evolutionary and institutional views of innovation. In the second part, national configurations of innovation processes are investigated. The third part deals with innovation at the subnational level, focusing on regional clustering, institution building, multilevel governance, and regionalized innovation systems.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: POL408H1
Recommended Preparation: One of GGR221H1, GGR251H1, GGR324H1, GGR326H1, GGR328H1, GGR374H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR430H1 - Geographies of Markets

Hours: 36S

Focuses on actually-existing markets and their geographically-mediated formation and assemblage. Explores how markets are produced, stabilized, reshaped and fall apart at multiple geographic scales. We examine issues such as the debates on states versus markets, embeddedness of markets, neoliberalism and moral justification of markets, varieties of capitalism, regionally variegated capitalism, post-socialist market transitions, and the dynamic evolution of market institutions and economic landscapes.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including at least 1.0 credit in 300+ level Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (2013-14)
Recommended Preparation: GGR220H1/ GGR221H1, GGR326H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR431H1 - Regional Dynamics

Hours: 24L

Economic activity, and related indices of socioeconomic well-being and human capital, have always tended to concentrate in space, leaving specific regions to be classified as “creative”, “developed”, or “core” regions and others as “have-not”, “less-developed, “peripheral”, or “marginal” regions. As a result, regional economic change has been very difficult to fully explain (and certainly predict) using conventional (orthodox) theories and methods. This course examines the theoretical linkage between related trends in terms of globalization, vertical disintegration, specialization, innovation, and the locational behaviour of firms. We will focus on the seemingly counter-intuitive finding that regional economic change in a time of increasing global interdependence is increasingly dependent on the local context. Topics will include evolutionary economic geography, path dependence, economic clusters, learning regions, the role of institutions, knowledge spill-overs, and the geography of innovation, among others. We will see why the economic activity is becoming ever more concentrated in space even as it globalizes. The course makes extensive use of empirical case studies from around the globe.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including GGR221H1/ GGR251H1
Recommended Preparation: GGR326H1, GGR270H1. A statistics course ( GGR270H1 or other) will be an asset.
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR432H1 - China in the Global Political Economy

Hours: 24S

Set against the backdrop of the rise of China, and following the perspective of geographic political economy, this seminar course examines the interactions between and mutual transformations of the Chinese economy and the global economy. We will focus on the evolving political and institutional foundations of China’s post-Mao, hybrid, hierarchical market-authoritarian system. Key sectors – telecoms, Internet, semiconductor, and automobile – will be examined to understand the nuances of China’s integration into the global production through state-directed uneven domestic development, and in turn the challenges raised by escalating international conflicts.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR389H1 (Special Topic: China in the Global Political Economy), offered in Fall 2022
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit from GGR221H1, GGR251H1, GGR343H1, GGR324H1, GGR343H1, JPA331H1, ANT341H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR433H1 - Built Environment and Health

Hours: 36S

Linking across fields that include public health, geography and planning, this course examines the growing evidence and ways in which human health is affected by the design and development of the built environment in which we live, work and play. The course considers how various planning and development decisions impact population and individual health, particularly in relation to chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health. Potential of several local field trips (transportation costs: approximately $21).

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (Special Topics in Geography I: Built Environments & Health), offered in Winter 2013
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR434H1 - Building Community Resilience

Hours: 36S

Examines concepts of resilience as a way of building the capacity of communities to (a) respond to predicted disruptions/shocks associated with climate change, global pandemics, anticipated disruptions in global food supply, energy insecurity, and environmental degradation; and (b) nurture the development of alternative spaces that support the emergence of more life-sustaining structures and practices. Includes explicit attention to equity and public health, and explores issues such as: participatory governance of social-ecological systems, the nature of social change, complexity science, the role of social movements, indigenous and political ecology perspectives.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (2011-12)
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR437H1 - Geographies of Waste

Hours: 36S

This seminar course examines how waste is made and how it circulates locally, regionally, and globally. It considers changing conceptions of ‘waste’ and the wider systems that have shaped efforts to manage waste through a selection of historic and contemporary geographies of waste. We will examine waste as a resource (e.g., recycling, composting) and waste avoided (e.g., reuse, repair). Through case studies, we will analyze waste – including urban wastewater – in relation to policy and planning, political economy, forms of labour and infrastructure, and the social norms and values that have shaped people’s relationship to it.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR438H1 - Environment and Development

Hours: 36S

Examines the implications of development – as an economic and social project – for how the environment is used, by whom, and to what ends. Draws on literatures in political ecology and critical development geography. Topics include: interpretations of scarcity and degradation, questions of consumption, and the greening of development. Examines expansion of and struggles over new forms of green infrastructure in urban and rural settings.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JGC439H1 - The Problem and Promise of Caribbean Freedom

Hours: 24L

This course surveys the institutional and ideological structures that have historically internally and externally governed the Caribbean; the patterns of uneven development and crisis they have produced and the forms of agency, resistance they have produced. Centering the social, economic, and spatial inter-connectedness of the Caribbean territorial region and its increasingly de-territorialized diaspora, we explore possibilities for economic, social and climate justice for all Caribbean communities.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (Special Topic: The Problem and Promise of Caribbean Freedom), offered in Winter 2023
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR = 3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JIG440H1 - Indigenous Geographies

Previous Course Number: GGR400H1 in 20199

Hours: 36S

This course draws on theoretical texts of Indigeneity, with a primary focus on Indigenous spaces in the Americas. Course participants will examine how core geographic concepts such as place, territory, land, movement and the scale of the body are sites of colonial dispossession and violence, as well as sites for decolonial and liberatory thought and practice. We will primarily engage with Indigenous-led scholarship within Geography and Indigenous Studies, and creative forms of knowledge production generated across Indigenous communities.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including one of INS200H1, INS201Y1, INS250H1, GGR107H1, GGR124H1, GGR240H1, GGR246H1, GGR254H1
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (Special Topics in Geography I: Indigenous Geographies), offered in Fall 2019
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

JGU454H1 - The Role of the Planner: Making a Difference

Previous Course Number: JGI454H1

Hours: 24L

Focuses on the role of a planning practitioner in contemporary society using a wealth of examples drawn from recent issues and debates in Canadian cities and regions. The course will walk students through the demands made of planners in terms of both technical expertise as well as political necessity and ask them to think actively about how to prepare for the extraordinary growth of cities during the next century. Examples of issues that will be discussed in some detail include the myths surrounding the city vs. the suburbs, the creativity and passion involved in planning work and the need to see Toronto’s future from a regional perspective.

Prerequisite: 14.5 credits, 5.0 of which must be GGR/URB
Exclusion: JGI454H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR456H1 - Entanglements of Power: Race, Sexuality and the City

Hours: 24S

This course investigates the city as a space sculpted by particular configurations and relations of power, and productive of those forms. It considers shifting urban geographies of identity, economy and desire with a focus on race and racism, settler colonialism, empire, the laboring body, sexuality, and sexual identity. Course participants will engage a series of case studies of particular urban spaces and struggles, drawing on conceptual support from scholarship in urban geography, anti-colonial thought, political economy, black studies, feminist and queer theory, Indigenous and settler colonial studies, as well as literature and other artistic work.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (Special Topics in Geography I: Entanglements of Power: Race, Sexuality and the City), offered in Fall 2018
Recommended Preparation: 2.0 credits in GGR
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR458H1 - Selected Topics in Urban Geography

Hours: 24L

This course focuses on a special topic in urban geography and covers it with more depth than would otherwise be the case in a survey-oriented class. The aim is to utilize this single topic as a vehicle to understanding how urban geographical ideas are produced more widely. Check the department website for the theme (updated each year).

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR460H1 - Global Cities, Urban Planning, Critical Theory

Previous Course Number: GGR400H1 (20181)

Hours: 36S

This seminar addresses the relationship between urbanization and global economic, political, cultural, social, demographic, technological and ecological dynamics. It does so with an emphasis on the contested legacies of city planning, urban design, architecture and urban political activism, by drawing on historical studies of global cities as well as critical-theoretical perspectives on the ‘production of space’. While broaching the question what’s ‘production of space’ got to do with social justice, we explore—with reference to pioneering thinkers in the fields of planning, architecture and critical theory—such concepts as radical planning, the urban revolution and the right to the city.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (Topics: Planning and Global Cities), offered in Winter 2018
Recommended Preparation: 1.0 credit in Geography (SOC SCI/BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR462H1 - GIS Research Project

Hours: 24L

Students work in groups to develop their own research project and then acquire, organize and analyze geographic data to complete it. Emphasis is placed on research design, project management and the application of GIS concepts and skills learned in previous courses to a practical problem.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including GGR373H1
Distribution Requirements: Science, Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR472H1 - Developing Web Maps

Hours: 24L

Explores the power of web mapping and CyberGIS, with a focus on hands-on learning and open source software. Students will learn about relevant software (exploring various APIs), data structures, methods, and cartographic and visualization techniques. Finally, students will work in groups to develop and deliver their own online web maps from scratch, on a topic of their choosing.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits including GGR272H1 and GGR273H1
Exclusion: GGR400H1 (2015-2016)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: The Physical and Mathematical Universes (5)

GGR473H1 - Geospatial Big Data

Hours: 24L

Advances in sensing and mobile technologies have contributed to the increasing availability of large volume georeferenced data such as geo-tagged social media content, GPS traces, and crowdsourced maps. While geospatial big data provide a major source for innovation and analysis, challenges relating to data handling, processing, and interpretation have simultaneously arisen. In this course, students will build a critical understanding of the evolution, potential, and biases of geospatial big data. Knowledge of geo-computational techniques to handle geospatial big data and perform meaningful analysis will also be developed and applied.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Exclusion: GGR401H1 (Special Topic: Geospatial Big Data), offered in Fall 2022
Recommended Preparation: GGR272H1, GGR273H1
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR481H1 - Field Course in Environmental Geography

Introduction to field studies in environmental geography. The course may include individual assignments and group work. Field trips are concentrated during a one-week period in late August or early September. Some preparation during the preceding summer may be required. Periodic course meetings and shorter field trips continue, along with course work, during the Fall Term. Each student is required to pay the costs of their transportation and accommodation (field trip costs: $102). Students must submit an application directly to the Department in the spring (see the Geography website for details in March). Course may be limited by size. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits and permission of the instructor
Recommended Preparation: 3.0 credits in Geography (BR=3)
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR482H1 - Toronto Field Course

Examines the production of urban landscapes, built environments and social spaces in Toronto and surrounding areas through in-depth case studies. Coverage will vary some depending on instructor. The course consists of local field trips and in-class seminars and lectures. Students must submit an application directly to the Department in the spring (see the Geography website for details in March). Course may be limited by size. Not eligible for CR/NCR option. Field trip costs are normally low, but may go up to $153.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Recommended Preparation: 2.0 GGR credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)

GGR491Y1 - Research Project

Specially designed for students wishing to gain experience in conducting research in their area of specialization. Of particular value for geographers interested in graduate study, or positions in government, planning and consulting firms where research skills may be an asset. Students select a research problem and complete a project under the supervision of a faculty member. Enrolment requires written permission from a faculty supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate; early discussion with a likely supervisor is encouraged. Enrolment may be completed at any time up to September; open to students in a Specialist or Major Program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR492H1 - Senior Practicum

Students design and implement an independent applied geography/planning project in consultation with an employer (paid or volunteer), who will act as their “client.” Enrolment requires written permission from a staff supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate. Only open to students who are enrolled in a Specialist or Major program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR492Y1 - Senior Practicum

Students design and implement an independent applied geography/planning/GIS project in consultation with an employer (paid or volunteer), who will act as their “client”. Enrolment required written permission from a staff supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate. Only open to students who have completed 10.0 credits and who are enrolled in a Specialist, Major or GIS minor program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR493Y1 - Geography Professional Experience

Undertake professional placement matching academic interests and career goals. Students meet regularly during the year in class to cover topics such as: reflective writing, project management, career planning, and the application of academic skills in professional contexts. Research project required that connects a topic related to placement with academic literatures. Normally, one day per week spent at placement site. For students in their final year of a Geography major or specialist program of study, or the GIS Minor. Satisfies program requirements based on placement. Students must submit an application directly to the Department in the spring (see the Geography website for details in March). Course may be limited by size. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 14.5 credits and an application

GGR496H1 - Independent Research

Independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in Geographic Information Systems. Enrolment requires written permission from a faculty supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate. Only open to students who are in Year 3 or higher and who are enrolled in the GIS program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits

GGR497H1 - Independent Research

Independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in Environmental Geography. Enrolment requires written permission from a faculty supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate. Only open to students who are in Year 3 or higher and who are enrolled in a Specialist or Major program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Social Science

GGR498H1 - Independent Research

Independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in Physical Geography. Enrolment requires written permission from a faculty supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate. Only open to students in Year 3 or higher and who are enrolled in a Specialist or Major program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Science

GGR499H1 - Independent Research

Independent research extension to one of the courses already completed in a social science or humanities branch of Geography. Enrolment requires written permission from a faculty supervisor and Associate Chair, Undergraduate. Only open to students in Year 3 or higher who are enrolled in a Specialist or Major program sponsored by the Department of Geography. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: 10.0 credits
Distribution Requirements: Humanities, Social Science

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