Honours Bachelor of Arts (HBA)/Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc)
Number of Credits
20.0. At least 10.0 credits must be offered by the Faculty of Arts & Science.
Level of Credits
Minimum of 13.0 at the 200/300/400-level
At least 6.0 at the 300/400-level
1 Specialist, or
2 Majors*, or
1 Major + 2 Minors*
* must consist of 12.0 different credits
Cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA)
The Breadth Requirement can be completed in one of two ways: (a) at least 1.0 credit in each of 4 of the 5 categories below, or (b) at least 1.0 credit in each of any 3 of the 5 categories, and at least 0.5 credit in each of the other 2 categories.
1 Creative and Cultural Representations
2. Thought, Belief, and Behaviour
3. Society and Its Institutions
4. Living Things and Their Environment
5. The Physical and Mathematical Universes
- At least 13.0 credits at the 200+ level, including a minimum of 6.0 credits at the 300+ level. No more than 1.0 credit at the 300+ level in transfer credit may be counted towards the minimum number of 300- and 400-level credits, except transfer credits attained through a University of Toronto exchange program.
- At least 10.0 credits from Faculty of Arts & Science courses. Note that transfer credits attained through a University of Toronto exchange program contribute to this 10.0 credits minimum.
- No more than 15.0 credits may have the same three-letter designator (“AST”, “ENG”, etc.). Courses beyond this limit will not be included in the 20.0 credits required for the degree, but will be counted in all other respects.
- One Specialist program (which includes at least 1.0 credit at the 400-level), or
- Two Major programs, which must include at least 12.0 different credits, or
- One Major and two Minor programs, which must include at least 12.0 different credits
Completion of one or more programs is only one part of the general degree requirements. Variations made in program details for individual students do not in any way affect degree requirements. Programs are groupings of courses in one or more disciplines.
Programs of Study are one of:
- Specialist Program: a sequence of between 10.0 and 14.0 credits in one or more disciplines (note that some interdisciplinary Specialist programs may require up to 16.0 credits). Specialist programs must include at least 4.0 credits from 300+ level courses, of which 1.0 credit must be at the 400 level.
- Major Program: a sequence of between 6.0 and 8.0 credits in one or more disciplines. Major programs must include at least 2.0 credits from 300+ level courses, of which one 0.5 credit must be at the 400 level.
- Minor Program: a sequence of 4.0 credits in one or more disciplines. Minor programs must include at least 1.0 credit at the 300+ level.
Please note: Some courses included as program options may have prerequisites as requirements not listed in the program but which must be taken. Programs which list optional courses do not necessarily list their prerequisites. Students are responsible for fulfilling prerequisites; students enrolled in courses for which they do not have the published prerequisites may have their registration in those courses cancelled at any time without warning.
Students are required to:
- Enrol in at least one and no more than three programs (of which only two can be Majors or Specialists), in the session in which they pass the course that brings them to a total of 4.0 credits. See the Arts & Science Program Toolkit for details.
- Meet any enrolment requirements for a program as stated in the Calendar.
- The programs(s) completed determine whether a student receives the Honours Bachelor of Science (HBSc) or the Honours Bachelor of Arts (HBA) degree upon graduation. Each program entry lists the type of degree it leads to. For example, in the English section, the English Specialist listing is followed by “Arts program”; in the Mathematics section, the Math Major is followed by “Science program”, etc. A student completing one Specialist in an Arts area would receive the HBA; a student completing one Specialist in a Science area would receive the HBSc.
- A student completing one Major in a Science area and one Major in an Arts area has a choice of either the HBSc or the HBA.
- In combinations of one Major and two Minors, the type of degree depends on the areas of the three programs. For example, if the Major is in a Science area and the two Minors are in Arts areas (or vice versa), the student has a choice of either the HBSc or the HBA. If the Major and one Minor are in Science areas and the other Minor is in an Arts area, the student would receive the HBSc. Similarly, if the Major and one Minor are in Arts areas and the other Minor is in a Science area, the student would receive the HBA.
- A student completing one Specialist in a Science area and an additional Major in an Arts area (or vice versa) has a choice of either the HBSc or the HBA.
- Students enrolled in either two Majors or one Major and two Minors must ensure they have a minimum of 12.0 different credits between the programs.
- For a student enrolled in the Physiology Major (8.0 credits) and the Biology Major (8.0 credits):
- In order to meet the 12.0 different credit requirement, they may have up to 4.0 overlapping credits between their Majors (8.0 + 8.0 = 16.0; 16.0 – 12.0 = 4.0).
- These two programs contain 3.0 core credits in common: (BIO120H1 and BIO130H1), (CHM135H1 and CHM136H1), and (BIO220H1 and BIO230H1). Therefore, they may take up to 1.0 more overlapping credit between the majors. In short, 8.0 for PSL + 8.0 for BIO = 16.0 credits; 16.0 credits - 12.0 different credits = 4.0 credits overlapping allowed.
The purpose of the Breadth Requirement is to ensure all students graduating with a degree from the Faculty of Arts & Science have chosen courses across a broad range of subject areas in the Faculty as part of their undergraduate education.
The five Breadth Requirement categories are:
- Creative and Cultural Representations
An appreciation for the diversity of cultural products, their meanings, and their socio-historical contexts through exposure to works in a variety of media and forms. Courses in this category focus on creative products and cultural expression, engaging students in activities such as the reading of texts, the learning of languages, and the study of art, film or oral traditions. These courses would normally focus on the conditions through which such works are produced, on their various interpretations in societal context, and on the ways in which those interpretations may have changed over time.
- Thought, Belief, and Behaviour
Familiarity with investigations of the mind and individual behaviour, and the formation and function of systems of meaning, belief, and communication. These courses explore the ways in which the mind perceives reality and makes sense of both the human and natural world. Their content may focus on the creation of meaning and the ways in which belief systems are sustained and reproduced, as well as on the communication of meaning through language and other symbolic systems. Many courses falling into this category centre upon understanding collective belief and the nature of human thought, and the ways in which these shape societal behavior and norms.
- Society and Its Institutions
Knowledge of societal organization, institutions, and systems, the ways they change over time, and the theories and models used to understand them. These courses include not only the study of social, economic and political systems, but also the ways in which humans arrange their built environments and manage environmental systems to meet their own needs. They will typically explore the social networks and systems that organize human lives and modify their environments. Courses in this category will generally approach these issues using social science methodologies and/or historical and critical analyses. Courses may also situate the issues explored in relation to relevant social theory (or theorists), models, or approaches to understanding societal problems.
- Living Things and Their Environment
A grasp of the principles and concepts of life and the relation between organisms and their natural surroundings, and the ability to make and evaluate observations about living things. This category includes courses broadly from the biological and environmental sciences, which develop an understanding of the study of life and its contexts; levels of organization range from molecules to the biosphere. Courses will cultivate an understanding of scientific methodology (the formulation of hypotheses, experimental design, and quantitative analysis methods), its application in the life sciences, and its limits in providing answers concerning biological and environmental questions.
- The Physical and Mathematical Universes
An understanding of theories of the physical world and mathematical models, and the ability to apply them and to make and evaluate observations relating to them. Courses in the physical sciences study the constituents and mechanisms that govern the natural world, with an emphasis on non-living systems. Such courses develop an understanding of scientific methodology (the formulation of hypotheses, experimental design, and quantitative analysis methods), its application and its limits.
The Breadth Requirement can be completed in one of two ways:
- at least 1.0 credit in each of 4 of the 5 categories, or
- at least 1.0 credit in each of any 3 of the 5 categories, and at least one 0.5 credit in each of the other 2 categories.
HIS103Y1: Strategy and Statecraft: War and Diplomacy in European History [48L/20T]
An analysis of the development of the international system, from 1648 to 1945, which highlights the role of war as an instrument of national policy, as a determinant of the system of states and as a threat to international society.
Exclusion: HIS100Y1, HIS101Y1, HIS102Y1, HIS106Y1, HIS107Y1, HIS108Y1, HIS109Y1, HIS110Y1
Breadth Requirements: Society and its Institutions (3)
HIS103Y1 counts as 1.0 credit in Category 3 (Society and Its Institutions).
ENG215H1: The Canadian Short Story [36L]
An introduction to the Canadian short story, this course emphasizes its rich variety of settings, subjects, and styles.
Prerequisite: 1.0 ENG credit or any 4.0 credits
Breadth Requirements: Creative and Cultural Representations (1)
ENG215H1 counts as one 0.5 credit in Category 1 (Creative and Cultural Representations).
ANT100Y1: Introduction to Anthropology [48L/12T]
Society and culture from various anthropological perspectives: socio-cultural, evolutionary, archaeological, and linguistic.
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4), Society and its Institutions (3)
ANT100Y1 counts as one 0.5 credit in Category 3 (Society and its Institutions) and one 0.5 credit in Category 4 (Living Things and Their Environment).