Physiology


Faculty List

Professors Emeriti
U. Ackermann, PhD
H.L. Atwood, PhD, DSc, FRSC
P. Backx, PhD
A. Buchan, PhD
J.R.G. Challis, PhD, DSc, FIBiol, FRCOG, FRSC
M.P. Charlton, PhD
J. Dostrovsky, PhD
J. Duffin, PhD
P.E. Hallett, MD
A.A. Horner, PhD
H. Kwan, PhD
D.R. McLachlan, MD, FRCP(C)
K. Norwich, MD, PhD
M. Percy, PhD
C. Perumalla, PhD
M. Radomski, PhD
L. Schlichter, PhD
H. Sonnenberg, PhD
E. Stanley, PhD
A.M-F. Sun, PhD
V. Watt, PhD
J.M. Wojtowicz, PhD

Associate Professor and Chair of the Department
S. Heximer, PhD

Professors
K. Adeli, PhD, FCACB, DABCC, FACB
G.H. Anderson, PhD
D. Bagli, MDCM, FRCSC, FAAP, FACS
M. Balki, MD
C. Barr, PhD
C.E. Bear, PhD
J. Belik, MD, FRCP(C)
D. Belsham, PhD
S.-S. Bolz, MD, PhD
T.J. Brown, PhD
P.L. Brubaker, PhD
I. Caniggia, MD, PhD
P.L. Carlen, MD, FRCP(C)
G.L. Collingridge, FRS, FMedSci, FSB, FBPhS
J. Eubanks, PhD
Z.P. Feng, MD, PhD
J. Fisher, MD, FRCP(C)
M. Friedberg, MD
H.Y. Gaisano, MD
A. Giacca, MD
A. Gramolini, PhD
G. Hare, MD, PhD, FRCP(C)
R.V. Harrison, BSc, PhD
S. Hill, PhD
R. Horner, PhD
M. Husain, MD, FRCP(C)
W. Hutchison, PhD
Z. Jia, PhD
T. Jin, MD, PhD
N. Jones, MD, PhD, FRCP(C)
J. Kingdom, MD, FRCSC, MRCP, FRCOG
A. Klip, PhD
W.M. Kuebler, MD
T.K.T. Lam, PhD
R. Levitan, MD, FRCPC, MSc
G. Lewis, MBBCH, FRCP(C)
R.K. Li, MD, PhD, FCAHS
F. Liu, PhD
M. Liu, MD, MSc
S.J. Lye, BSc, PhD
S. G. Matthews, PhD
C.D. Mazer, MD, FRCP(C)
A. McGahan, PhD
J. Morrison, PhD
H. Ni, MD, PhD
B. Orser, MD, PhD
M. Palmert, MD, PhD
Z. Pausova, MD
J. Peever, PhD
A. Pierro, OBE, MD, FRCS(Eng.), FRCS(Ed), FAAP
M. Post, DVM, PhD
S. Prescott, MD, PhD
N.D. Rosenblum, MD
M.W. Salter, MD, PhD, FRSC
J.W. Scholey, MD, FRCP(C)
B.J. Sessle, MDS, PhD
F. Skinner, MA, Sc, PhD
S. Sugita, MA, PhD
H.S. Sun, MD, PhD
S. Thomas, PhD
D. Tweed, PhD
M. Tymianski, MD, PhD, FRCS(C)
L.-Y. Wang, PhD
M. Wheeler, PhD
C. Wittnich, DVM, MSc
H. Zhang, MD, PhD
M. Zhen, PhD
M. Zhuo, PhD

Associate Professors
V. S. Chauhan, MD, FRCPC
D. Cherney, MD, PhD, FRCPC
K. Connelly, PhD, MBBS, FRACP
B. Cox, PhD
A. Dimitrijevic, PhD
C. Dos Santos, MD, FRCPC
P. Frankland, PhD
J. Gillis, PhD
M. Gollob, MD, FRCPC
S. Josselyn, PhD
A. Jurisicova, PhD
D. Kadis, PhD
E.K. Lambe, PhD
C. Librach, MD, FRCS(C)
J. Min, PhD
P.P. Monnier, PhD, MBA
D. Ng, PhD, MD, FRCP(C)
C. Nostro, PhD
I. Rogers, PhD
O. Shynlova, PhD
P. Subbarao, MD
N. Sweezey, MD

Assistant Professors
F. Billia, MD, PhD
M. De Pitta, PhD
N. Goldenberg, MD, PhD
E. Hay, PhD
Z. Ivakine, PhD
M. Lankarany, PhD
P. McGowan, PhD
C. O'Brien, MD, PhD
A. Ramsey, PhD
J.V. Rocheleau, PhD
M. Seed, MBBS, MRCPH, FRCR
S. Tripathy, PhD
B. Steinberg, MD, PhD, FRCPC
A. Velumian, PhD
A. Wheeler, PhD

Full Professor, Teaching Stream
M. French, PhD

Associate Professor, Teaching Stream
N. Kee, PhD

Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream
H. Miliotis, PhD

Introduction

Physiology is the study of living matter in action. It integrates physical and life science disciplines in order to understand body functions and the origins of disease. Beyond the study of control mechanisms, compensations, and cooperation among body molecules, cells, tissues and organs, the interaction between the body's external and internal environments is a key theme in Physiology. Most importantly, Physiology unifies the life sciences from molecule to organism, providing the link from genomics and molecular signaling pathways to behaviour and disease. Emerging fields for physiologists are the analysis of the functional implications of genomic sequence variation, developmental factors leading to chronic illness, and novel approaches for regenerative medicine.

Biological function -- of molecules, cells, and organs -- is at the heart of Physiology, and this knowledge is fundamental to the life sciences in general. Accordingly, Physiology provides an excellent and often necessary background for subsequent training in Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Nursing, Physical or Occupational Therapy, and other health-related professions. It is also excellent preparation for graduate work in Physiology and related areas; or for the teaching of Biological Science in secondary schools. Physiologists are needed in hospitals and departments of medicine as teachers and research personnel. Other outlets would be in agriculture and veterinary medicine, in military research establishments and in life science-based industry. The development of air and space travel, the exploration of the continental shelf, the development of Northern regions, and increased emphasis on exercise and fitness, all provide business and research opportunities for the person trained in Physiology.

Physiology at the research level covers a variety of specialties (e.g., Endocrinology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Neurophysiology, Respiratory Physiology, Reproductive Physiology, Sensory Physiology), each with a wide variety of technical and analytical methods. More information is available on the departmental website (www.physiology.utoronto.ca).

Undergraduate Assistant: Jay Bhat, Medical Sciences Building, Room 3368, physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca, (416-978-5077)

Physiology Programs

Physiology Specialist (Science Program) - ASSPE0482

Enrolment Requirements:

This is a limited enrolment program. Students must have completed 4.0 credits and meet the requirements listed below to enrol.

Variable Minimum Grade Average
A minimum grade average in required courses is needed for entry, and this minimum changes each year depending on available spaces and the number of applicants. The following courses or their equivalents must be completed:

To ensure that students admitted to the program will be successful, applicants with a final grade lower than 60% in each course, or a grade average lower than 70% in these required courses will not be considered for admission. Please note that obtaining this minimum final grade or minimum grade average does not guarantee admission to the program. The underlying numeric final mark in each of your courses required for program enrolment will be used by the relevant academic unit to determine your eligibility.

Applications from students lacking numerical grades in one or more of the specified prerequisites, or students applying in their second or later years, may be considered on the basis of their entire academic record and the availability of space in the program. In addition to applying through ACORN, students applying in their second year or later are asked to please contact the department directly at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca, specify which program you would like to be considered for, and provide your student number.

Please consult the Arts & Science Program Toolkit for more information on program enrolment, or the Physiology website at www.physiology.utoronto.ca.

Completion Requirements:

(14 credits)

First Year:
BIO120H1, BIO130H1; ( CHM135H1, CHM136H1)/ CHM151Y1; ( PHY131H1, PHY132H1)/( PHY151H1, PHY152H1)

First Year or Upper Years:
( MAT135H1, MAT136H1)/ MAT137Y1/​ MAT157Y1*

Second Year:
1. 2.5 credits from BCH210H1; BIO230H1/​ BIO255H1; CHM220H1/​ CHM247H1/​ CHM249H1; PSL300H1, PSL301H1
2. 1.5 credits from BIO220H1, BIO260H1/​ HMB265H1; MAT235Y1, PHY231H1, PSL299Y1/​ PSL399Y1, STA220H1/​ STA250H1

Third Year:
1. 3 credits from BCH370H1; PSL304H1, PSL305H1, PSL350H1/​ CSB349H1/​ BCH311H1, PSL372H1, PSL374H1
2. 1 credit from the following list: ANA300Y1, ANA301H1; BME498Y1; CSB325H1, CSB332H/ CJH332H1, CSB343H1, CSB345H1/​ CSB445H1, CSB346H1, CSB347H1; IMM340H1/​ IMM341H1, IMM350H1/​ IMM351H1; JPM300H1; PCL201H1, PCL285H, PCL302H1; PHY331H1, PSL310H1; PSL378H1/​ PSL379H0/​ PSL398H0; PSY397H1

Fourth Year: (at least 2 credits at 400-level)
1. PSL496Y1/​ PSL497H1/​ PSL498Y1/​ PSL499H1/​ JPM400Y1
2. 1-1.5 credits from PSL400-series or HMB430H1/​ HMB470H1/​ HMB472H1

* These courses may be taken in the first year or subsequent years, and are not required for entrance into the specialist program.

Physiology Major (Science Program) - ASMAJ0482

Enrolment Requirements:

This is a limited enrolment program. Students must have completed 4.0 credits and meet the requirements listed below to enrol.

Variable Minimum Grade Average
A minimum grade average in required courses is needed for entry, and this minimum changes each year depending on available spaces and the number of applicants. The following courses or their equivalents must be completed:

To ensure that students admitted to the program will be successful, applicants with a final grade lower than 60% in each course, or a grade average lower than 70% in these required courses will not be considered for admission. Please note that obtaining this minimum final grade or minimum grade average does not guarantee admission to the program. The underlying numeric final mark in each of your courses required for program enrolment will be used by the relevant academic unit to determine your eligibility.

Applications from students lacking numerical grades in one or more of the specified prerequisites, or students applying in their second or later years, may be considered on the basis of their entire academic record and the availability of space in the program. In addition to applying through ACORN, students applying in their second year or later are asked to please contact the department directly at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca, specify which program you would like to be considered for, and provide your student number.

Please consult the Arts & Science Program Toolkit for more information on program enrolment.

Completion Requirements:

(8 credits, including 0.5 credits at the 400-level)

First Year:
1. 2 credits from ( BIO120H1, BIO130H1)/BIO150Y; ( CHM135H1, CHM136H1)/ CHM151Y1
2. 1 credit from any of the following: MAT135H1, MAT136H1, MAT137Y1, MAT157Y1, PHY131H1, PHY132H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1

Second Year:
2 credits from BCH210H1; BIO230H1/​ BIO255H1; PSL300H1, PSL301H1

Higher Years:
1. 1 credit from PSL372H1, PSL350H1/​ BCH311H1/​ CSB349H1
2. 1 credit from ANA300Y1, ANA301H1; CSB325H1, CSB330H1, CSB332H/ CJH332H1, CSB343H1, CSB345H1/​ CSB445H1, CSB346H1, CSB347H1; IMM340H1/​ IMM341H1, IMM350H1/​ IMM351H1; JPM300H1; NFS284H1; PCL201H1, PCL285H, PCL302H1; PSY201H1; PSY397H1; STA220H1
3. 1 credit from HMB430H1/​ HMB470H1/​ HMB472H1; JPM400Y1; PSL304H1, PSL305H1, PSL310H1, PSL374H1, PSL378H1/​ PSL379H1/​ PSL379H0/​ PSL398H0, PSL399Y1, PSL400-series courses

Physiology Minor (Science Program) - ASMIN0482

Enrolment Requirements:

This is an open enrolment program. A student who has completed 4.0 credits may enrol in the program.

Completion Requirements:

(4.0 credits, including 1.0 credit at the 300+ level)

1. 2.0 credits from: ( BIO120H1, BIO130H1); PSL201Y1/​( PSL300H1, PSL301H1)
2. 2.0 credits from: BIO251H1, BIO270H1, BIO271H1; CSB325H1, CSB332H/ CJH332H1, CSB343H1, CSB344H, CSB345H1/​ CSB445H1, CSB346H1, CSB347H; EEB328H1; HMB200H1/​HMB220H, HMB430H1, HMB470H1, HMB472H1; PSL280H1, PSL299Y1, PSL300-series (excluding PSL300H1, PSL301H1), PSL400-series; PSY290H1, PSY396H1, PSY397H1, PSY369H1/​PSY399H, PSY490H1, PSY492H1, PSY494H1, PSY497H1


 

Biological Physics: see Physics

 

Physiology Courses

PSL190H1 - Biomedical Research at the Cutting Edge

Hours: 24L/6S

Explore the thought processes, logic, motivation, techniques, analysis and impact of recent high-profile publications to gain insight into the enterprise of science. Outstanding scientists present recent high-impact papers, and students will examine the research in depth, focusing on the underlying questions, experimental approach, results and significance. Restricted to first-year students. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: SBI4U and SCH4U (Grade 12 University Preparation Biology and Chemistry); permission of Department
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL201Y1 - Basic Human Physiology

Hours: 44L/24P

A survey course covering all organ systems intended for students who are not proceeding further in Physiology.

Exclusion: Any 300-level PSL course taken previously or concurrently
Recommended Preparation: 100-level course in BIO or equivalent
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL280H1 - Introduction to Physiologic Adaptations of Marine Mammals

Hours: 24L/14P

Systems approach to physiology of marine mammals in their aquatic environment. Highlights unique features of cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, urinary, and reproductive systems. Introduces relevant physiology, and makes comparisons to human condition and disease.

Prerequisite: ( BIO120H1, BIO130H1), CHM136H1/ CHM151Y1. Students who do not have all of the required prerequisites are encouraged to contact the course coordinator to seek a waiver.
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL299Y1 - Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-opportunities-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Science

JPM300H1 - Research Readiness and Advancing Biomedical Discoveries

Hours: 12L/24T

Explore how scientists leverage their knowledge and skills to advance academic biomedical discoveries from the laboratory to improve patient health through either commercialization or not-for-profit approaches. Students will learn about innovation and develop key research and industry skills including intellectual property, ethics, budget and project management; learn how to critically evaluate scientific evidence and effectively communicate to a wide audience. This hybrid student-centered course will include interactive online modules and in-class group work. Course work will focus on developing skills and knowledge to help you be successful in diverse research courses and future careers. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: Completion of 10.0 credits, BCH210H1/ BCH242Y1
Recommended Preparation: PSL300H1, PSL301H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL300H1 - Human Physiology I

Hours: 36L/5T

Principles of neurophysiology, endocrinology and reproductive physiology for students enrolled in Life Science programs.

Exclusion: PSL201Y1, PSL302Y1
Recommended Preparation: BIO130H1; CHM136H1/ CHM151Y1; and 1.0 credit from any of the following: MAT135H1, MAT136H1, MAT137Y1, MAT157Y1, PHY131H1, PHY132H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL301H1 - Human Physiology II

Hours: 36L/4T

Principles of respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal physiology for students enrolled in Life Science programs.

Exclusion: PSL201Y1, PSL302Y1
Recommended Preparation: BIO130H1; CHM136H1/ CHM151Y1; and 1.0 credit from any of the following: MAT135H1, MAT136H1, MAT137Y1, MAT157Y1, PHY131H1, PHY132H1, PHY151H1, PHY152H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL304H1 - Topics in Cellular, Molecular and Organismic Physiology I

Hours: 32L/16T

Control systems, feedback, networks, and both neonatal and adult cardiovascular and respiratory control are the topics examined in detail using homeostasis as a unifying theme. Tutorials involve computer simulations, case studies and/or experimental design. This course is designed for students in the Physiology Specialist and Biological Physics Specialist Programs, although permission is granted to students in other programs upon approval by the Department.

Prerequisite: BCH210H1, PSL300H1, PSL301H1, MAT100-series
Exclusion: PSL303Y1
Recommended Preparation: PSL372H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL305H1 - Topics in Cellular, Molecular and Organismic Physiology II

Hours: 32L/16T

Focus on two topics: the brain and pregnancy. Delve into the physiology of the central nervous system along with associated diseases as model systems. Learn about fetal and maternal adaptations during pregnancy and the consequences of maladaptation. The course is designed for Physiology Specialist students, although permission is granted to other students upon Departmental approval.

Prerequisite: BCH210H1, PSL300H1, PSL301H1, MAT100-series
Exclusion: PSL303Y1
Recommended Preparation: PSL372H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL310H1 - Clinical Reasoning

Hours: 24L/12S

Improved clinical reasoning will reduce the current likelihood that most people will suffer at least one medical diagnostic error, errors that contribute to ~10% of patient deaths. Learn to apply strategies of critical thinking and principles of physiology to solve clinical cases. Shadow a healthcare professional. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: BCH210H1, BIO230H1/ BIO255H1, PSL300H1, PSL372H1, PSL301H1
Corequisite: PSL301H1
Exclusion: HMB322H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL350H1 - Mammalian Molecular Biology

Hours: 18L/12T/6S

Extend molecular biology concepts to current scientific literature in mammalian physiology. Apply these principles to disease and complex behaviours. Discuss bioethical issues raised by these techniques and their application. Benefit from three weeks in small group seminars lead by research professors focusing on current advances in mammalian molecular biology.

Prerequisite: BIO230H1/ BIO255H1, PSL300H1, BCH210H1
Corequisite: PSL301H1
Exclusion: BCH311H1/ BIO349H1/ CSB349H1/ MGY311Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL372H1 - Mammalian Physiology Laboratory

Hours: 12L/36P

A laboratory course covering selected topics in physiology. An ancillary fee of $50 will be charged for lab materials.

Prerequisite: BIO230H1/( BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/ BIO255H1, BCH210H1/ BCH242Y1, MAT100-series/PHY100-series, PSL300H1, PSL301H
Corequisite: BCH370H1 (recommended)
Exclusion: CSB348H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL374H1 - Advanced Physiology Laboratory

Hours: 12L/36P/12S

A problem-based laboratory course focused on the integration and control of organ systems to understand body functions. Enrollment in this course is restricted to students in the Physiology Specialist and Major Programs although permission is granted to students in other programs upon approval by the Department. An ancillary fee of $50 will be charged for lab materials.

Prerequisite: BIO230H1/( BIO240H1, BIO241H1)/ BIO255H1, PSL300H1, PSL301H1, PSL372H1
Exclusion: CSB348H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL378H1 - Field Physiology: Marine Mammal Autopsy

Hours: 12L/24T/36P

An opportunity to go outside of the traditional university classroom and actively participate in a marine mammal autopsy. Learn the diversity and adaptive nature of marine mammalian physiology/anatomy as it compares to human. The course is 2 weeks (in May), one week of hands-on tissue dissection, and one week of group discussions of the findings and draft report preparation. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

An additional fee is required to help cover the cost of delivery for this course. Please see https://physiology.utoronto.ca/psl378h1f for details.

Prerequisite: BIO270H1, BIO271H1/ PSL201Y1/ PSL280H1/ PSL300H1, PSL301H1 or permission of the course coordinator
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL379H0 - Comparative Marine Mammal Physiology in the Field

Hours: 24T/36P

Hands-on monitoring of physiological measures with live dolphins, manatee and sea lions; field observations and applied learning to a physiology project. Two-weeks at the end of April early May: 1st week is spent at the marine research center in Mexico, 2nd week of wrap-up discussion and integration of data at U of T. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

An additional fee is required to help cover the cost of delivery for the course. See https://physiology.utoronto.ca/psl379h for details.

Prerequisite: BIO220H1/ BIO230H1/ BIO270H1/ BIO271H1/ CSB343H1/ PSL280H1/ PSL201Y1/ PSL300H1/ PSL301H1/ PSY362H1/any other relevant course
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL398H0 - Research Excursions

An instructor-supervised group project in an off-campus setting. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-excursions-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Distribution Requirements: Science

PSL399Y1 - Research Opportunity Program

Credit course for supervised participation in faculty research project. Details at https://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/current/academics/research-opportunities/research-opportunities-program. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

JPM400Y1 - Biomedical Incubator Capstone Project

Hours: 240P/16S

Discover what it is like to be part of a biomedical innovation team. Develop and engage in biomedical research in a simulated small business/incubator setting under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Bring your proposed JPM300H1 project to life, while acquiring budget management, research, business and communication workplace skills for future careers. Enrolment is application-based. Application requirements and process are presented as part of the JPM300H1 course. Proposals will be reviewed by committee and successful proposals will be matched to a mentor. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Application required; contact department (undergrad.pharmtox@utoronto.ca) for more information.


Students will form teams and develop a research proposal based on either:

1. Faculty led concept requiring further development and testing, which would not normally be funded grants and would be tangential to ongoing research in the lab.

2. Student developed innovative idea that requires further development and testing. This should be a project that is not being investigated in a UofT research lab.

Prerequisite: A minimum of 75% in JPM300H1; completion of any of PCL367H1/ PCL368H1/ PSL372H1/ BCH370H1/ BCH377H1.
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL404H1 - Regenerative Medicine

Hours: 24L/12T

Regenerative medicine promises to restore body function that has been lost due to disease, damage or age. Students will explore selected molecular, stem cell and tissue engineering developments to better understand how the body normally functions and how cells, tissues, and organs can be repaired or replaced.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1
Recommended Preparation: PSL350H1/ BCH311H1/ CSB349H1/ MGY311Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL420H1 - Reproduction: Development and Function

Hours: 24L

This course provides an in-depth review of the development and function of the male and female reproductive systems. Topics include sex determination and differentiation, steroidogenesis, gametogenesis, hormonal control of the reproductive axis, the female ovulatory cycle, fertilization and implantation, infertility and assisted reproduction approaches.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL420H1/LMP2100H

Prerequisite: A minimum grade of 78% is required in PSL300H1 and PSL301H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL421H1 - Pregnancy and Birth: From Implantation to Newborn Life

Hours: 24L

General overview of the integrated physiological events associated with fetal development, pregnancy and birth. The approach emphasizes physiological processes using insights gained from studies of humans, animals, cells and genes. Where appropriate the clinical consequences of aberrant development are reviewed.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL421H1/PSL1421H

Prerequisite: A final grade of 75% or higher in each of PSL300H1 and PSL301H1. If minimum is not reached, please contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Recommended Preparation: PSL420H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL424H1 - Cellular and Molecular Basis of Endocrine Disorders

Hours: 24S

Explore how researchers uncover the molecular and cellular basis of endocrine disorders. Learn about experimental design, state-of-the-art research tools, and data interpretation. Topics include disorders in: hormone regulation, secretion and action; circadian rhythms; and sexual development and reproduction. Each week students engage in class discussion related to research seminars delivered by faculty.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1, PSL350H1/ BCH311H1/ CSB349H1/ MGY311Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL425H1 - Integrative Metabolism and its Endocrine Regulation

Hours: 24L

This course integrates the newest findings and experimental approaches from cellular and molecular biology into metabolic function at the tissue, organ and whole body level.

Prerequisite: BCH210H1, PSL300H1, PSL301H1
Recommended Preparation: PSL305H1/ PSL303Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL432H1 - Theoretical Physiology

Hours: 24L

Theoretical treatment of neurophysiology. Mathematical modeling and analysis of neurophysiological systems.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL432H1/PSL1432H

Prerequisite: MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1; APM346H1/ MAT244H1 A minimum grade of 78% is required in MAT235Y1/ MAT237Y1; APM346H1/ MAT244H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Recommended Preparation: PHY200-series; PSL201Y1/ PSL300H1/( BIO270H1, BIO271H1)
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL440Y1 - Neuroscience: Systems and Behaviour

Hours: 96L

Introduction to systems neuroscience. A review of basic neuroanatomy and physiology followed by in-depth study of selected sensory and motor systems, with an emphasis on clinical applications in the second term. Students with an elementary neuroscience background progress to reading neuroscience literature on their own.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1/ PSY290H1/ CSB332H1 or equivalent
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL445H1 - Neuroscience: Cellular and Molecular

Previous Course Number: PSL444Y1

Hours: 36L

Overview of the fundamentals of cellular and molecular aspects of brain function. Course material is updated yearly to reflect the rapid evolution of ideas in Neuroscience.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL445H1/PSL1445H/JNR1444Y

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1, CJH332H1 or permission of instructor A minimum grade of 78% is required in PSL300H1, PSL301H1 and CJH332H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Exclusion: PSL444Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL446H1 - Neural Disorders

Previous Course Number: PSL444Y1

Hours: 36L

Explore topics in neurological disorders and treatments to reinforce and expand your knowledge of cellular and molecular neurophysiology. Course material is updated yearly to reflect the rapid evolution of ideas in this area.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL446H1/PSL1446H/JNR1444Y

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1, CJH332H1 or permission of instructor A minimum grade of 78% is required in PSL300H1, PSL301H1 and CJH332H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Exclusion: PSL444Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL450H1 - Mechanisms of Neural and Endocrinal Secretion

Hours: 24L

Exocytosis and other aspects of secretion mainly in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but also in pancreatic cells. Topics include synapse anatomy and physiology, synaptic plasma membrane and vesicle proteins, membrane fusion, genetic tools, endocrine secretion, plasticity in neurotransmitter release, diseases arising from secretion defects.

Prerequisite: BCH210H1, PSL300H1/( BIO240H1, BIO241H1), PSL350H1/ CSB349H1/ BCH311H1/ MGY311Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL452H1 - Membrane Physiology

Hours: 24L

Biophysics and molecular biology of ion channels. Topics include equivalent circuits for cells, molecular structure of voltage-gated channels, distribution of channels, relationship between single-channel and whole-cell recording, and regulation of channel function by voltage, phosphorylation, G-proteins and metabolites.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL452H1/PSL1452H

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1 A minimum grade of 75% is required in PSL300H1 and PSL301H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL462H1 - Molecular Aspects of Cardiovascular Function

Hours: 36L

Heart anatomy and development, ion channels and contractile proteins involved in cardiac and smooth muscle contraction are studied. Emphasis is on regulation of electrical and contractile function of kinases, metabolism, volume and ions.

Joint undergraduate/graduate course - PSL462H1/PSL1462H

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1 A minimum grade of 75% is required in PSL300H1 and PSL301H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL470H1 - Cardiovascular Physiology

Hours: 24L

Development of the cardiovascular system from conception to adulthood with particular emphasis on maturational changes, age-related differences and developmental problems from cellular/molecular to whole organ/system.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL472H1 - Sleep Physiology and Chronobiology

Hours: 24L

This course covers the physiology underlying sleep and circadian rhythms, and their impact on important physiological processes and health. The integrative nature of the basic physiological processes is emphasized via discussions and clinical presentations. Overall, the aim is to present the full spectrum of integrative physiology from molecules and cells to understanding the sick patient.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1 A minimum grade of 75% is required in PSL300H1 and PSL301H1. If minimum grade has not been met students are advised to contact the Department of Physiology at physiology.undergrad@utoronto.ca for approval.
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL480H1 - Diving Physiology of Marine Mammals

Hours: 24L/6T

This course compares and contrasts the physiological and anatomical adaptations exhibited by the different species of marine mammals in relationship to humans, with respect to diving.

Prerequisite: ( BIO270H1, BIO271H1)/ PSL201Y1/ PSL300H1, PSL301H1; PSL280H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL495H1 - Communicate Biomedical Science

Hours: 6L/2T/18S

Research, critique and write a manuscript on a topic of your choice in the scientific literature while guided by classes and assignments that develop advanced science communication skills; and by a mentor expert in your area of clinical or basic physiology.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1; PSL301H1; PSL372H1; 13.5 additional credits; and permission of Department
Exclusion: BCH479H1; HMB490H1; HMB491H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL496Y1 - Translational Physiology Research Project

Hours: 144P

Engage in supervised original science research, either basic or clinical, combined with a healthcare placement. Develop skills in defining scientific questions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and communicating your results. Gain insight into the power of translational bench-to-bedside research. Discover your interest in becoming a science researcher. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1, PSL310H1, PSL372H1, permission of Department.
Exclusion: PSL497H1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL497H1 - Translational Physiology Research Project

Hours: 72P

Engage in original science research, either basic or clinical, combined with a healthcare placement. Develop skills in defining scientific questions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and communicating your results. Gain insight into the power of translational “bench-to-bedside” research. Discover your interest in becoming a science researcher. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: PSL300H1, PSL301H1, PSL310H1, PSL372H1, permission of Department.
Exclusion: PSL496Y1
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL498Y1 - Project in Physiology

Hours: 144P

Laboratory research project with reading assignments leading to a final report. By special arrangement with a Physiology staff member after admission to course. PSL498Y1 is recommended for students applying to the Physiology graduate program. Enrollment in this course is restricted to students in the Physiology Specialist and Major Programs, although permission is granted to students in other programs upon approval by the Department. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: ( PSL304H1, PSL305H1)/ PSL303Y1, PSL372H1, PSL374H1, permission of Department
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

PSL499H1 - Project in Physiology

Hours: 72P

Laboratory research project with reading assignments leading to a final report. By special arrangement with a Physiology staff member after admission to course. PSL499H1 is recommended for students applying to the Physiology graduate program. Enrollment in this course is restricted to students in the Physiology Specialist and Major Programs, although permission is granted to students in other programs upon approval by the Department. Not eligible for CR/NCR option.

Prerequisite: ( PSL304H1, PSL305H1)/ PSL303Y1, PSL372H1, PSL374H1, permission of Department
Distribution Requirements: Science
Breadth Requirements: Living Things and Their Environment (4)

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