This course introduces Mishnah and Tosefta which are two of the three foundational documents of Middle Hebrew I from the Tannaitic period ending circa 250 CE in the Galilee. In addition to studying specific features of this level of Hebrew (e.g. syntax, grammar, vocabulary), we shall examine these compositions independently and analyze their interaction (textuality and intertextuality). Students will read recent scholarly literature on these documents and their relationship to each other and to orality. Students will be introduced to the manuscripts of these documents and the variant readings will be studied philologically. Decisions on original readings will be made. Finally, we shall explore redaction and source critical issues allowing identifications of anonymous statements with specific authorities (sages). The Tractate may vary from year to year.