'Childhood' associates with diverse meanings throughout human history. In a western industrial society, the responsibility of childcare mainly falls upon parents’ shoulders, with help from various professionals. Also, knowing and caring for children have evolved into distinct fields across life sciences, humanities, and social science. The child science ranges from education, developmental psychology, and child and adolescent psychology, etc. The development of these disciplines further shapes our views of children and modify parenting practices. In this course, we will draw on empirical studies to examine how the science of children and childcare penetrates families and schools to structure the daily life of children in the modern world.